Acid-Base and Electrolyte Case Study

Acid-Base and Electrolyte Case Study

A nurse is taking care of an 85-year-old woman in a hospital based skilled nursing facility. In report, the nurse is told the patient has not been breathing well for the past 2 days. She has been lethargic, her skin is warm and dry, and she has a decreased urine output. The following laboratory findings were returned from the laboratory immediately after morning report: Acid-Base and Electrolyte Case Study

Address the following:

1.Identify each of the abnormal laboratory findings in the above results. Specify how they differ from a normal range and identify what condition each abnormality indicates.


2.What specific electrolyte disturbance does the patient have?

3.What clinical manifestations would the nurse expect to see with this electrolyte abnormality presented above?

4.If the patient had an increase in her potassium level, what clinical manifestations would the nurse monitor for?

5.What blood gas abnormality is seen in this patient? Discuss the rationale for your answer.

6.What are the three major mechanisms of pH regulation?

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

Normal sodium level in blood ranges between 135 and 145 milliequivalents (mEq/L) per liter (Costa & Soares, 2017). The patient’s concentration of sodium is higher than normal which suggests the presence of hypernatremia condition. The Chlorine levels of 110 mEq/L are also higher than the normal which is 97-107 mEq/L. This indicates potential hyperchloremia. The pH levels of 7.33 also deviate from the normal range of between 7.35 and 7.45. The patient could thus be having acidemia. The normal PCO2 in blood is 38 to 42 mm Hg and therefore, a high of 48 mmHg suggests the presence of hypercapnia. The normal Urine Specific Gravity is between 1.002 and 1.030 (Zubac et al., 2018). High results of 1.040 demonstrate that the patient is dehydrated. Acid-Base and Electrolyte Case Study

Specific electrolyte disturbances include sodium, chlorine and levels of pH. Hypernatremia is characterized by lethargy which causes extreme weaknesses and fatigue together with confusion (Costa & Soares, 2017).  On the other hand, hyperchloremia causes high blood pressure, dry mucous membrane, excessive thirst, weakness of muscles and fatigue. Acidemia also causes lethargy and dehydration while hypercapnia symptoms include confusion, lethargy, reduced neural activity, flushed skin and muscle twitches among others (Shchelochkov, Carrillo & Venditti, 2016). If the patient had an increase in potassium level, she would have trouble breathing, chest pains, nausea, numbness and tingling, tiredness and palpations symptoms associated with hyperkalemia.

The blood gas abnormality seen in this patient is both the pH OF 7.33 and 48 mmHg of PCO2. The normal range for these blood gas components are between 7.35 and 7.45 and a range of 38 to 42 mm Hg respectively (Giordano et al., 2016). The three major mechanisms of pH regulation are the buffers, respiratory and renal mechanisms. Buffer mechanism includes phosphates, proteins as well as H2CO2 : HCO3-.


Costa, J. M., & Soares, J. B. (2017). Symptomatic Hyponatremia after Bowel Preparation: Report of Two Cases and Literature Review. Acta medica portuguesa30(11), 824-826.

Giordano, M., Ciarambino, T., Castellino, P., Malatino, L., Di Somma, S., Biolo, G., … & Adinolfi, L. E. (2016). Diseases associated with electrolyte imbalance in the ED: age-related differences. The American journal of emergency medicine34(10), 1923-1926.

Shchelochkov, O. A., Carrillo, N., & Venditti, C. (2016). Propionic acidemia. In GeneReviews®[Internet]. University of Washington, Seattle.

Zubac, D., Reale, R., Karnincic, H., Sivric, A., & Jelaska, I. (2018). Urine specific gravity as an indicator of dehydration in Olympic combat sport athletes; considerations for research and practice. European journal of sport science18(7), 920-929.

Acid-Base and Electrolyte Case Study


Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
hiw 01
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Nursing Papers Writer
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat