Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Paper

Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Paper

Protein Malnutrition

Protein malnutrition is a disease that presents with a decrease in the body’s lean tissue due to starvation or dietary insufficiency of proteins. It is common in children, the elderly, and patients suffering from chronic illnesses (Olson, et al, 2020). The classical presenting features depend on age, the cause, and other chronic diseases. Protein malnutrition is classified into three; marasmus, kwashiorkor, and marasmic-kwashiorkor. Reduced dietary protein intake causes a decrease in the synthesis of visceral proteins. Hypoalbuminemia causes extravascular fluid accumulation (edema). It also causes impaired synthesis of lipoproteins which produces a fatty liver. Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Paper

The Role Of Genetics In Protein Malnutrition

Protein malnutrition induces the expression of the IGF-binding protein-1 gene. The gene contributes to the response of amino acid limitation (Chen, et al, 2020). The binding of the amino acid response unit was dependent on protein nutrition. The decrease in the IGF-binding protein-1 gene reduces the binding of the amino acids for the breakdown in the liver.


Why Is The Patient Presenting With The Symptoms Described

An 83-years old female showed up at the emergency department with symptoms of protein malnutrition. They are generalized edema and mal-absorption syndrome. The cause of protein malnutrition for this patient is the lack of dentures. Edema results from fluids imbalance and is a result of starvation of reduced dietary proteins (Olson, et al, 2020). Reduced protein intake or decreased protein synthesis causes a decrease in albumin concentration. Normal albumin levels contribute to the oncotic pressure that keeps the fluids within the vasculature. Hypoalbuminemia causes a decrease in the oncotic pressure and also causes increased secretion of the antidiuretic hormone that increases sodium retention and hence the edema. Abdominal edema could be a result of hepatomegaly. It comes about through mal-absorption of the fats and carbohydrates in the liver. Starvation also causes a decrease in gastric and pancreatic secretions, reduced intestinal motility, and intestinal mucosa atrophy. Therefore, resulting in the mal-absorption of carbohydrates, fats, and vitamins. Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Paper

The Physiologic Response To The Stimulus

Elderly patients are at risk of developing protein-energy malnutrition because of inadequate nutrition caused by a lack of dentures. Protein malnutrition causes impaired temperature regulation that may present as either hypothermia or hyperthermia. It causes electrolyte imbalances; hypernatremia, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia (Olson, et al, 2020). Hypernatremia and hypokalemia cause edema. There are reduced protein synthesis albumin, transferrin, and lipoproteins. Therefore, decreasing the ability to breakdown and transport fats in the liver. Growth hormones such as glucagon, epinephrine, and cortisol are elevated. The immune system is compromised due to the reduced T cells and serum immunoglobulins.

Cells Involved In Protein Malnutrition

Memory CD8 T cells are impaired in malnutrition due to the hemostatic proliferation. The memory cells are also affected during the process of malnutrition leading to impaired viral clearance upon re-infection (Vila et al, 2019). Other causes of impaired memory cells are reduced proliferation and increased cell death or both. The cell-mediated immune response I compromised in patients with malnutrition due to the reduced T lymphocytic cells.

How Gender And Genetics Would Change The Response

The genetic effects would change in response based on the different strains and species of the genes. These genes change the perceptual pathways in the nervous system for sensing the stimuli such as hypothermia or hyperthermia (Olson, et al, 2020). The gender of the patient would not change the response because there is no significant change in protein malnutrition in males and females. Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Paper


For this Discussion, you examine a case study and explain the disease that is suggested. You examine the symptoms reported and explain the cells that are involved and potential alterations and impacts. -Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided. Include the following in your explanation: -The role genetics plays in the disease. -Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described. -The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred. -The cells that are involved in this process. -How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response. – Case – An 83-year-old resident of a skilled nursing facility presents to the emergency department with generalized edema of extremities and abdomen. History obtained from staff reveals the patient has a history of malabsorption syndrome and difficulty eating due to lack of dentures. The patient has been diagnosed with protein malnutrition. -References-Please use this book & may use articles & only nursing books. 1. Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier. 2019, Chapters 1-5. 2. Justiz-Vaillant, A. A., & Zito, P. M. (2019). Immediate hypersensitivity reactions. In StatPearls. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved from Line: Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf. (2019, June 18). Retrieved from Used with permission of Stat Pearls. 3. Khan Academy (2010, February 24). Inflammatory response | Human anatomy and physiology | Health & medicine [Video file]. Retrieved from Note: The approximate length of the media program is 14 minutes. Rubric – Main Posting – 45 (45%) – 50 (50%) -Answers all parts of the Discussion question(s) with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources. -Supported by at least three current, credible sources. -Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.


Chen, J., Zhao, X., Cui, L., He, G., Wang, X., Wang, F., … & Xu, M. (2020). Genetic regulatory sub-networks and key regulating genes in rat hippocampus perturbed by prenatal malnutrition: implications for major brain disorders. Aging (Albany NY)12(9), 8434

Olson, B., Marks, D. L., & Grossberg, A. J. (2020). Diverging metabolic programmes and behaviours during states of starvation, protein malnutrition, and cachexia. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle11(6), 1429-1446.

Vila, C. C., Saracino, M. P., Falduto, G. H., Calcagno, M. A., Venturiello, S. M., Pallaro, A. N., & Baldi, P. C. (2019). Protein malnutrition impairs the immune control of Trichinella spiralis infection. Nutrition60, 161-169. Advanced Pathophysiology Essay Paper

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