Asthma Research Assignment Paper
Asthma Research Assignment Paper
Complications of asthma can be sudden. Consider the case of Bradley Wilson, a young boy who had several medical conditions. He appeared in good health when he went to school, returned home, and ate dinner. However, when he later went outside to play, he came back inside wheezing. An ambulance took him to the hospital where he was pronounced dead (Briscoe, 2012). In another case, 10-year-old Dynasty Reese, who had mild asthma, woke up in the middle of the night and ran to her grandfather’s bedroom to tell him she couldn’t breathe. By the time paramedics arrived, she had passed out and was pronounced dead at the hospital (Glissman, 2012). These situations continue to outline the importance of recognizing symptoms of asthma and providing immediate treatment, as well as distinguishing minor symptoms from serious, life-threatening symptoms. Since these symptoms and attacks are often induced by a trigger, as an advanced practice nurse, you must be able to help patients identify their triggers and recommend appropriate treatment options. For this reason, you need to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation Asthma Research Assignment Paper.
Review “Asthma” in Chapter 27 of the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Consider how these disorders are similar and different.
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Select a patient factor different from the one you selected in this week’s Discussion: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Think about how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders. Reflect on how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected.
Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct two mind maps—one for chronic asthma and one for acute asthma exacerbation. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of both chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation.
Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following: Include an intro and conclusion paragraph please.
Describe the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Be sure to explain the changes in the arterial blood gas patterns during an exacerbation.
Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment for a patient based on the factor you selected.
Construct two mind maps—one for chronic asthma and one for acute asthma exacerbation. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment you explained in your paper.
Please include the following exact references as 2 of the 4:
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Hammer, G. G. , & McPhee, S. (2014). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine. (7th ed.) New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
Asthma is a respiratory disorder that is characterized by patients presenting hallmark signs and symptoms that include coughing, wheezing, and breathlessness. This is the result of the bronchospasms of the smooth muscles and airway wall being inflamed. Medical research indicates that the condition is caused by various factors, triggers and exposure to specific allergens, to include perfumes, infection of the upper respiratory tract, exercise, smoke, obesity, and heredity that can trigger respiratory distress. In addition, the condition’s occurrence is associated with certain risk factors (Edlin & Golanty, 2015). The present analysis evaluates the pathophysiology of chronic and acute asthma while presenting treatment, factors affecting the two conditions, their diagnosis, and treatment Asthma Research Assignment Paper.
Describe the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation
Chronic asthma is characterized by increased sensitivity to vitiated lung development, bacterial colonization, viral infection, and type 2 inflammation. In this case, basophils, neutrophils, B lymphocytes, T helper cells, mast cell eosinophils, lymphocytes, lymphocytes, and dendritic cells promote bronchial mucosa inflammation and airways hyper-responsiveness (Hammer & McPhee, 2014). On the other hand, acute asthma occurs when antigens are inhaled and they bind to mast cells that then de-granulate while releasing inflammatory mediators that include platelet activating factor, leukotrienes, interleukins, prostaglandins, histamine and bradykinins. The mediators cause the airway’s smooth muscles to undergo bronchospasm while increased permeability of the capillary causing edema. In addition, the airway constriction occurs caused by mucus secretion increase from goblet cells. These responses occur when antigens are detected by the dendritic cells before the Th2 cells receive a signal to release interleukins that are responsible for causing IgE production from B cells. Also, eosinophils production is then stimulated, that in turn presents significant amounts of protein that damage the respiratory epithelium (Hammer & McPhee, 2014).
Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders
The selected factor is allergens, whereby it is reported that 60% of asthmatics have allergic asthma. In this case, the allergen gains entry into the body through injection, touch, swallowing and inhalation as an allergen that then reacts with the immune system. The immediate allergic reaction is having watery eyes, itchiness, and sneezing. The late response is inflammation and bronchoconstriction. One the allergen gains access to the body it triggers the mast cells to produce histamine leukotrienes that cause rapid bronchospasm. The mast cells would also produce cytokines and other chemotactic factors that recruit and activate inflammatory cells that cause vascular and neural effects late asthmatic response and chronic inflammation (Huether & McCance, 2017).
Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment for a patient based on the factor you selected
The selected factor is allergens that cause allergic asthma. Diagnosis would rely on four critical factors. Firstly, establishing an asthma diagnosis that includes partial or episodic obstruction of the airways and hyper-responsiveness. Secondly, conducting spirometry and physical exam as well as detailed medical history. Thirdly, testing inflammation biomarkers, allergies, methacholine bronchoprovocation, and pulmonary function test. Finally, checking clinical history for worsening symptoms at night and in the presence of physical activity, history of respiratory distress, and wheezing. Treatment for allergic asthma would require anti-inflammatory medication to reverse the allergic response. Additionally, SABA, ICS, LABA, and corticosteroids may be prescribed based on asthma severity to ease the respiratory distress (Kushnir & Kaliner, 2015)Asthma Research Assignment Paper.
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Figure 1. Mind map for chronic asthma
Figure 2. Mind map for acute asthma
Asthma is a respiratory disorder characterized by breathlessness, wheezing, and coughing owing to respiratory distress. Chronic asthma and acute asthma represent two forms of the disorder. The chronic form entails sensitivity to vitiated lung development, bacterial colonization, viral infection, and type 2 inflammation. On the other hand, the acute form occurs when antigens bind to mast cells that de-granulate to release inflammatory mediators that cause bronchospasm and edema. Allergens are determined to impact the pathophysiology of the acute and chronic forms of asthma since they cause allergic that include watery eyes, itchiness and sneezing, as well as bronchospasm. Diagnosis for allergy-mediated asthma checks for partial or episodic obstruction, inflammation biomarkers and allergies, and worsening symptoms. Treatment includes anti-inflammatory medication, SABA, ICS, LABA, and corticosteroid.
Edlin, G. & Golanty, E. (2015). Health and wellness. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Hammer, G. D. & McPhee, S. G. (2014). Pathophysiology of disease an introduction to clinical medicine (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Education Medical.
Huether, S. E. & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Kushnir, N. & Kaliner, M. (2015). Allergic asthma: symptoms and treatment. Retrieved from http://www.worldallergy.org/education-and-programs/education/allergic-disease-resource-center/professionals/allergic-asthma-symptoms-and-treatment Asthma Research Assignment Paper.