Best Practices Report Essay Paper
Best Practices Report Essay Paper
HIV continues to challenge the public health care system. The major health concern has so far claimed over 35 million lives with 940,000 lives being lost from causes related to the infection around the world (WHO, 2019). By the end of 2017 at least 36.9 million people were living with HIV with new infection cases getting to 1.8 million (WHO, 2019). 52% of children and 59% of adults living with HIV were undertaking a long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the same year (WHO, 2019). Best Practices Report Essay Paper
HIV weakens the immunity of the infected individuals making them vulnerable to infections. This renders them immunodeficient due to decreased CD4 cell count which measures the immune functions. Cancers and other opportunistic diseases begin to attack the body successfully contrary to the health individuals. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) marks the advanced stage of HIV infection. It is characterized by development of certain cancers, infections, or other severe clinical manifestations and occurs after 2 to 15 years of HIV infection.
HIV in the United States and the United Kingdom is concentrated in key countries. In both countries, the ART proportion is very high which makes the prevalence generally low. The healthcare systems struggle with getting early since most of the infected population is diagnosed at late stages. This factor has undermined effective management over the years.
In North America and Western and Central Europe, approximately 2.2 million people were reported to have HIV in 2017. Between 2010 and 2015, the amount of new HIV infections annually remained constant until 2016 when they dropped by 20,000 indicating superior performance in HIV management. At least 85% of the population knew its HIV status by 2017 and antiretroviral treatment (ART) was accessible to 89% of people living with HIV (Avert, 2019). Best Practices Report Essay Paper
ORDER A FREE -PAPER HERE
Delivery: In the UK, PrEP is available through the National Health Service in Scotland and Wales and is being provided to 10,000 people in England (Department for Education, 2014)
PrEP is available to individuals with heightened risk of HIV in the US.
In 2016, ART was delivered to 1.7 million in North America and Western and Central Europe.
Harm reduction: new infections through needle syringe injection have decreased to 1,126 from 2,161 between 2005 and 2014 (UNAIDS, 2016).
Condom distribution was done through the HIV prevention program which facilitated the dispensing of 248 million condoms between 2012 and 2014 (WHO, 2019).
In the UK, the condom distribution coverage is 3% and is targets 15-24 years old.
Affordability and Cost
81% of the UK infected population received treatment coverage by 2016.
In 2014, 71% of the US population living with HIV received medical care even though the continuous HIV medical care national criteria was met by only 57% of them.
HIV treatment is currently free in the UK
The US spends $39,000 of the Medicaid budget on HIV drugs annually.
The UK spends £380,000 for lifelong treatment of one HIV patient.
50% to 60% of the population had increased access to opioid substitution therapy and needle and syringe programs in Western and Central Europe in 2015.
In the US, 244 Needle and syringe programs (NSPs) were accessible by 2016.
Sex education in schools is widespread in Western Europe
In the US, sex education is not universal to everyone due to state policies.
Access to HIV/AIDS-related drugs is a significant best practice towards management of HIV. Both the US and UK provide access to Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for prevention of HIV. This practice is well embraced in the US compared to the UK. They also provide antiretroviral therapies which support management of the infection and help manage it at lowest levels.
Moreover, counselling and voluntary counselling and testing services help in maintaining the mental wellbeing of both the patients and their families and have been adopted in both countries. Best Practices Report Essay Paper
Early testing facilitates early diagnosis as well as prevention for those who undergo voluntary testing. The use of condoms has been successfully achieved in the US. However, it is also practiced in the UK even though not exhaustively.
Incorporating sex education in the curriculum is also an effective practice aimed at preventing and promotion of HIV health education. The UK has been able to achieve this practice which has not yet been embraced in the US.
Selection of best practices is dependent on the population features, age sensitivity, gender equality, race and ethnicity, disease prevalence and stage of the infection among other factors.
The recommended best practices are essential in management of HIV in both countries. Free provision of condoms facilitates protection and ensures its accessibility to every citizen. This prevents sexual transmission of the infection and reduces newly acquired infections.
On the other hand, it reduces the cost of management, treatment and prevention of HIV infected persons. This is achieved through the elimination of antiretroviral therapies which cost the countries’ healthcare systems huge budgets as well as hospitalization and care costs.
Consequently, reduction of operational costs will increase revenue generation and support competition in the markets. For instance, reduced re-hospitalization of people living with HIV following provision of quality care and education through health promotion will help manage the organizations resources which will in turn prevent replacement costs. The saved cost can also be used in healthcare renovations and developments to rebrand the organization and improve its reputation in the market thus gaining an increased share, improve quality and affordability. Trusted organizations are guaranteed increased customer loyalty, referrals and revenue.
The consumer will receive quality, affordable and easily accessible care. This follows the successful establishment of the organization supported by increased revenue. High quality care will enable fast recovery pf the patient and increase their loyalty. These practices also protect the consumer from contracting HIV particularly through the use of easily accessible and affordable condoms.
Notably, early testing is crucial in for diagnosis through early detection. This has become a major healthcare concern in the US and UK and therefore, the organization will encourage the consumers to have themselves tested voluntarily. They will also offer counselling to help them with their mental wellness, acceptance and self-care. The establishment of the organization will also ease the healthcare accessibility for HIV patients. Best Practices Report Essay Paper
The fee-for-service (FFS) model challenges prevention of HIV and associated infections. This is because; the patient awaits when they become sick to visit the hospital since the provider is paid per person. This increases the risks for diseases and compromises on the screening opportunities as well as the prevention efforts of the provider. On the other hand, the risk-based contracting plan compels the providers to specialize on care management programs that suit the high need, high cost patients. Increased coordination is usually necessary between the primary acre teams and the specialists in the development of multi-faceted and complex care for people living with HIV aids.
Avert (2019). HIV and AIDS in the UNITED KINGDOM (UK). Retrieved from https://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-around-world/western-central-europe-north-america/uk on May 16,2019
UNAIDS (2016). Prevention Gap Report. Retrieved from https://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/2016-prevention-gap-report_en.pdf on May 16,2019
World Health Organization (2019). HIV/AIDS. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hiv-aids on May 16,2019
Department for Education (2014, December). Retrieved from ‘National Curriculum in England: Framework for Key Stages 1 to 4’ on May 16,2019
Best Practices Report Essay Paper