Cervical Cancer Discussion Paper

Cervical Cancer Discussion Paper

The American Cancer Society estimates that by the end of 2012, more than 226,000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer and more than 241,000 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer (American Cancer Society, 2012a; American Cancer Society 2012b). With such prevalence of women’s and men’s cancers, patient education and preventive services are essential. In clinical settings, advanced practice nurses must assist physicians in educating patients on risk factors, preventive services, and for patients diagnosed with cancer, on potential drug treatments. The clinical implications of women’s and men’s cancer greatly depend on early detection, which is primarily achieved through preventive services. In this Assignment, you consider the short-term and long-term implications of cancer and drug treatments associated with women’s and men’s health, as well as appropriate preventive services. To prepare: • Select a type of cancer associated with women’s or men’s health such as breast, cervical, or ovarian cancer in women and prostate cancer in men. • Locate and review articles examining the type of cancer you selected. • Review the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force article in the Learning Resources. Think about available preventive services that providers might recommend for patients at risk of this type of cancer. • Select two of the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how these factors might impact decisions related to preventive services. • Consider drug treatment options for patients diagnosed with the type of cancer you selected including short-term and long-term implications of the treatments. By Day 7 Write at least a 2- page paper that addresses the following: • Describe available preventive services that providers might recommend for patients at risk of the type of cancer you selected. • Explain how the factors you selected might impact decisions related to preventive services. • Describe drug treatment options for patients diagnosed with the type of cancer you selected. Explain the short-term and long-term implications of these treatments. Cervical Cancer Discussion Paper


Cervical cancer is a chronic and prevalent condition affecting millions of women globally. It is rated 14th in terms of severity, and ranked top among gynecologic cancers when prioritizing treatment and preventive measures. Measures to reduce its spread are focussed on primary and secondary prevention. According to Stevanović  et al (2015), early screening is the most vital step in reducing the prevalence of cervical cancer and to minimize mortality. Medical practices require the screening for the lethal human papilloma virus through pap smears. However, the application of preventive procedures for cervical cancer faces considerable disparities such as age and ethnicity. Healthcare professionals ought to incorporate excellent measures during cancer diagnosis, to warrant precise drug administration.

Preventing Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer can be prevented if detected on time. In fact, Stevanovićet al (2015) assert that early diagnosis is the most important form of prevention strategy. The precautionary approaches help avert further disease relentlessness.

HVI Test and Vaccination

This test involves collecting samples of cells from the cervix, for any traces of HPV. Females aged between 9-26 years can be vaccinated against HPV, a preventive step most effective on women who are sexually dormant.


Smoking is one of the leading factors causing a variety of cancers globally. Specifically, nicotine in cigarettes leads to the formation of cancerous cells in the long run. Avoiding the habit is a dependable preventive methodology from contracting the deadly disease. Cervical Cancer Discussion Paper

Bimanual Pelvic Exam

This involves checking a woman’s body for abnormal changes and growths in the reproductive system.  Notably, gynecologists use a speculum to keep the vaginal entry open. Any detection of abnormal tumors is referred for proper medication and surgery (Stevanović et al., 2015). Bimanual pelvic examination aids in the prescription of precautionary medications such as vaccines, to help combat the disease.

Factors Affecting Administration of Cancer Preventive Measures


Death rates due to cancer differ based on ethnicity. Hirth, Laz, Rahman and Benson (2016) emphasize that Black American Women are more likely to die from the disease due to lack of follow up plans after screening. Besides, Hirth et al. (2016) demonstrate that the Spanish race infrequently use the Pap smear method due to low preference. Consequently, fewer women are screened leading to increased mortality.


Pap smear is the best method of detecting HPV. As Huh et al. (2015) suggest, it is most suited for young females, especially those in their twenties.  Evidently, it becomes difficult to detect the cells through Pap smear or women in the age bracket of 30 and above. Based on this aspect, HPV vaccination is the most effective method.

Drug Treatment Options for Cervical Cancer

Bevacizumab (Avastin)

Bevacizumab targets cancer cell protein known as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It blocks this protein and stops cancer from growing in blood vessels, starving in the process (Martín et al., 2015).  The drug is administered intravenously. Notably, the first dose is given over 90 minutes, second over 60minutes and third after 30minutes.

Topotecan Hydrochloride (Hycamtin)

Topotecan Hydrochloride is applied to inhibit topoisomerase. The enzyme action damages the DNA, which helps cancer cells to grow and multiply, thus killing them. Topotecan Hydrochloride is administered intravenously or given as capsules. Treatment is given every 3 weeks.

Pembrolizumab Keytruda)

Pembrolizumab helps boost Immunotherapy by stimulating the body’s immune system to fight cancer cells. Specifically, it targets and blocks a protein called PD-1 on the surface of certain immune cells called T-cells which detect and kill cancer cells. Pembrolizumab can be administered intravenously, with treatment done over 30 minutes, every 3 weeks for up to 2 years.

Short and Long-Term Implications of Cervical Cancer Treatment

Cervical cancer can be controlled through drug administration. Despite the intervention proving helpful, Pfaendler, Wenzel, Mechanic and Penner, K. R. (2015) posit that they bear detrimental side effects on the patients. For instance, patients experience hair loss, vomiting, nausea, constipation and anemia after taking drugs. Normally, these symptoms happen in the short term (Pfaendler et al., 2015). In the long term, cancer patients may suffer from lung predicaments, hypertension, heart diseases, and tissue problems. Cervical Cancer Discussion Paper


Cervical cancer is a chronic ailment affecting many people worldwide. Basically, healthcare professionals ought to incorporate dependable preventive measures for instance vaccination, to avert the severity of the disease. Evidently, Topotecan Hydrochloride and Pembrolizumab are some of the commonest drugs used to treat cervical cancer. However, patients may experience excessive vomiting and heart diseases as some of the major side effects.


Hirth, J. M., Laz, T. H., Rahman, M., & Berenson, A. B. (2016). Racial/ethnic differences affecting adherence to cancer screening guidelines among women. Journal of Women’s Health, 25(4), 371-380. doi:  10.1089/jwh.2015.5270

Huh, W. K., Ault, K. A., Chelmow, D., Davey, D. D., Goulart, R. A., Garcia, F. A., … & Schiffman, M. (2015). Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: interim clinical guidance. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2014.12.022

Martín, M., Loibl, S., von Minckwitz, G., Morales, S., Martinez, N., Guerrero, A., … & Garcia-Saenz, J. Á. (2015). Phase III trial evaluating the addition of bevacizumab to endocrine therapy as first-line treatment for advanced breast cancer: the letrozole/fulvestrant and avastin (LEA) study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 33(9), 1045-1052

Pfaendler, K. S., Wenzel, L., Mechanic, M. B., & Penner, K. R. (2015). Cervical cancer survivorship: long-term quality of life and social support. Clinical therapeutics, 37(1), 39-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2014.11.013

Stevanović, S., Draper, L. M., Langhan, M. M., Campbell, T. E., Kwong, M. L., Wunderlich, J. R., … & Restifo, N. P. (2015). Complete regression of metastatic cervical cancer after treatment with human papillomavirus–targeted tumor-infiltrating T cells. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 33(14), 1543. doi:  10.1200/JCO.2014.58.9093 Cervical Cancer Discussion Paper


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