Diabetes and Drug Treatments Research

Diabetes and Drug Treatments Research

Diabetes is an endocrine system disorder that affects millions of children and adults (ADA, 2011). If left untreated, diabetic patients are at risk for several alterations including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. There are various methods for treating diabetes, many of which include some form of drug therapy. The type of diabetes as well as the patient’s behavior factors will impact treatment recommendations. In this Assignment, you compare types of diabetes including drug treatments for type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. To prepare: • Review this week’s media presentation on the endocrine system and diabetes, as well as Chapter 46 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text and the Peterson et al. article in the Learning Resources. • Reflect on differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. • Select one type of diabetes. • Consider one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations related to treatment. • Think about the short-term and long-term impact of the diabetes you selected on patients including effects of drug treatments. By Day 7 Write at least a 2- page paper that addresses the following: • Explain the differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. • Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Include dietary considerations related to treatment. • Explain the short-term and long-term impact of this diabetes on patients including effects of drugs treatments. Diabetes and Drug Treatments Research

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Introduction

Diabetes is a disease where insulin production is not possible, or ther os a body inability to utilize insulin when produced. Insulin is a hormone responsible for controlling blood sugar levels within the blood. Diabetes causes high sugar levels which is harmful to the body (Noctor & Dunne, 2015).  This paper aims to discuss various types of diabetes and medication used in treatment of a specific type of diabetes. Finally, the impact of the diabetes on the patient will be discussed.

Types of Diabetes

Three forms of diabetes encompass: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas’ beta cells that produce insulin are attacked by the immune system. Consequently the pancreas either does not release any insulin or releases inadequate insulin (Rydén et al, 2016). Therefore, sugar accumulates within the blood. This type of diabetes normally occurs during childhood or teenage and hence it is also referred to as juvenile diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, there is insulin insensitivity which means that the body is no able to properly utilize the produced insulin (Noctor & Dunne, 2015). Consequently, sugar accumulates within the blood. This is the most common type among the three. Gestational one is the third type of diabetes which happens during pregnancy because some hormones released during pregnancy block insulin. Additionally, the changes in the body that include changes in hormone levels during pregnancy result to elevation of blood glucose levels (Noctor & Dunne, 2015). Diabetes and Drug Treatments Research

Medication used to treat Gestational Diabetes

Metformin is a medication used in treatment of gestational diabetes. The medication elevates the sensitivity of insulin, decreases hepatic glucose release, as well as improves absorption of peripheral glucose, which lowers the blood glucose with reduced risk of low blood sugar and weight gain (Tripathi et al, 2017). Priya & Kalra (2018) further add that metformin is an insulin-sensitizing medication and hence lowers fetal excessive growth and thus reduces future risk of obesity for the offspring. Unlike insulin, metformin doesn’t induce insulin secretion, and hence does not cause maternal hypoglycaemia.

Accordingly, metformin is a first-line medication in managing gestational diabetes due to excellent evidence supporting the efficacy, safety and acceptability of the medication. The medication is administered orally. As Tripathi et al (2017) provide the administration of metformin is comparatively easy, affordable, better acceptability and better follow up, which makes it a more preferable alternative. In addition, unlike insulin, metformin does not pose any storage challenges.

Healthy diet consisting of whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and limited intake of refined carbohydrates is recommended. Additionally, exercises are encouraged because exercises reduce blood sugar levels through stimulation of glucose to move into cells to be utilized for energy. Moreover, exercises increase insulin sensitivity to cells and hence body does not require high amount of insulin for sugar transportation. Lastly, the treatment plan of gestational diabetes involves close monitoring of the fetus (Farrar et al, 2017).

Impact of Gestational Diabetes on Patients

Gestational diabetes can have adverse effects on the development of the intrauterine. Additionally, gestational diabetes is associated with Spontaneous abortions, premature births, as well as key congenital anomalies. Mpondo et al (2015) also explain that there is excessive fetal growth that may lead to injuries during delivery due to the big size. The fetus may also develop hypoglycemia and jaundice. Gestational diabetes also increases the risk of the mother developing type 2 diabetes (Mpondo et al, 2015).

Conclusion

Three forms of diabetes encompass: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes which occurs during pregnancy was selected. Metformin which is administered orally is the preferred treatment for gestational diabetes due to its efficacy and easy administration. Gestational diabetes can have adverse maternal impact such as premature birth, excessive fetal growth, among other effects. Lastly, gestational diabetes increases the risk of the mother to develop diabetes mellitus in future. Diabetes and Drug Treatments Research

References

Farrar D, Simmonds M, Bryant M, et al. (2017).Treatments for gestational diabetes: a systematic review and  meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2017(7).

Mpondo B, Ernest A & Dee H. (2015). Gestational diabetes mellitus: challenges in diagnosis and management. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders.14(42).

Noctor E & Dunne F. (2015). Type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes: The influence of changing diagnostic criteria. World J Diabetes. 6(2): 234–244.

Priya G & Kalra S. (2018). Metformin in the management of diabetes during pregnancy and lactation. Drugs Context. 1(7).

Rydén A, Sörstadius E, Bergenheim K, Romanovschi A, Thorén F, Witt EA, et al. (2016). The Humanistic Burden of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Europe: Examining Health Outcomes and the Role of Complications. PLoS ONE. 11(11): e0164977.

Tripathi R, Tyagi S & Goel V. (2017). Metformin in gestational diabetes mellitus. Indian J Med Res. 145(5): 588–591.

Diabetes and Drug Treatments Research

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