Diabetes Mellitus Essay Paper
Diabetes Mellitus Essay Paper
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome characterized by high blood glucose. Its symptoms are polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, blurring of vision, paresthesia, and yeast infection. Genetic predisposition, autoimmune diseases, sedentary lifestyle, cancer, and drugs like steroids increase the risk for diabetes mellitus. The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus involves fasting blood sugar above 7.0mmol/l, random blood sugar above 11.1mmol/l, and glycated hemoglobin above 6.5% 9 (Alam, et al, 2021). Types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, and juvenile diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus Essay Paper
Types Of Diabetes Mellitus
Type one diabetes mellitus is high blood glucose levels due to autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. It commonly occurs in childhood but may develop in adults with graves diseases and Hashimoto thyroiditis (Roep, et al, 2021). Diabetes ketoacidosis is the initial presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
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These patients depend on exogenous insulin for survival. Gestational diabetes is high blood glucose levels and glucose intolerance whose first recognition is during pregnancy. Hyperglycemia may or may not resolve after delivery. Juvenile diabetes is hyperglycemia in children due to insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas. Type two diabetes mellitus is high blood glucose levels due to the body’s resistance to insulin action, inadequate secretion of insulin, and excessive glucagon production.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is common in adults above 35 years old. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus are obesity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, drug-induced, and hypertension. Metformin 500mg PO BD is the recommended first-line therapy for a newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patient. Metformin is a biguanide that decreases hepatic glucose production and increases the target cells’ insulin sensitivity (LaMoia, T. E., & Shulman, G. I. 2021). The dietary modification includes restricting intake of food rich in starch and encouraging intake of food rich in fiber. Treatment goals in type 2 diabetes mellitus are controlling the glycemic levels, micro-vascular, and macro-vascular control. Metformin and diet modification reduced the incidences of retinopathy, nephropathy, and diabetic foot. However, metformin has side effects such as gastric irritations and hypoglycemia. Diabetes Mellitus Essay Paper
Alam, S., Hasan, M., Neaz, S., Hussain, N., Hossain, M., & Rahman, T. (2021). Diabetes Mellitus: insights from epidemiology, biochemistry, risk factors, diagnosis, complications and comprehensive management. Diabetology, 2(2), 36-50.
LaMoia, T. E., & Shulman, G. I. (2021). Cellular and molecular mechanisms of metformin action. Endocrine Reviews, 42(1), 77-96.
Roep, B. O., Thomaidou, S., van Tienhoven, R., & Zaldumbide, A. (2021). Type 1 diabetes mellitus as a disease of the β-cell (do not blame the immune system?). Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 17(3), 150-161. Diabetes Mellitus Essay Paper
Post a brief explanation of the differences between the types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Be sure to include dietary considerations related to treatment. Then, explain the short-term and long-term impact of this type of diabetes on patients. including effects of drug treatments. Be specific and provide examples. Rubric: Answers all parts of the discussion question(s) expectations with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources. Supported by at least three current, credible sources. Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules Diabetes Mellitus Essay Paper