Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility.
Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility.
To Prepare Review this week’s media presentation on the gastrointestinal system. Review Chapter 35 in the Huether and McCance text. Identify the normal pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production. Review Chapter 37 in the Huether and McCance text. Consider the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and gastritis. Think about how these disorders are similar and different. Select a patient factor different from the one you selected in this week’s Discussion: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Consider how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of GERD, PUD, and gastritis. Reflect on how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on this factor. Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility.
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Review the “Mind Maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct a mind map for gastritis. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of gastritis. To Complete Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following: Describe the normal pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production. Explain the changes that occur to gastric acid stimulation and production with GERD, PUD, and gastritis disorders. Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of GERD, PUD, and gastritis. Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected. Construct a mind map for gastritis. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment you explained in your paper. Construct a separate mind map on congestive heart failure. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology of alterations, risk factors, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder. Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility.
Gastric juice is secreted by GIT glands in order to breakdown the food and kill bacteria within the intestine. The inner lining of the GIT is susceptible so acidic conditions and also some food, drugs, and drinks can cause an acid imbalance in the GIT. This paper will discuss disorders of gastric of motility in the GIT. Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility.
Normal Pathophysiology of Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production
The hydrochloric acid and gastric juices are produced by the parietal cells on the intestinal walls. Hormonal, neuronal and pancreatic stimulation leads to the production of gastric acid into the lumen. According to Wirth & Yang (2016), histamine 2 receptors are the ones mainly involves in stimulating the production of gastric acid. Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility.
During meal consumption, the G cells release gastrin and the gastrin binds to parietal cells and ECL cells. When this occurs, the stimulation of proton pump occurs and also intracellular calcium is produced. As a result, gastrin binds to the ECL cells which leads to the formation of histamine. Histamine at that point binds to the H2 cells which cause stimulation of gastric acid production Wirth & Yang, 2016). Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility.
Effect of GERD, PUD, and Gastritis Disorders on Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production
GERD known as gastroesophageal reflux disease happens when acid reflux occurs from the abdomen to the esophagus. GERD is caused by a higher intra-gastric pressure when compared to the LES pressure. This occurs when a person consumes a meal increasing the volume and acidity of the intestinal contents and the sphincter is defective. GERD is characterized by heartburn (Malfertheiner & Mearin, 2017). On the other hand, duodenal ulcers and gastritis occur when the H Pylori inflames the intra-mucosa increasing the acidity and eventually eroding the mucosa, leading to ulceration. Peptic ulcer disorder (PUD) occurs when the digestive juices and acid are produced in the intestinal tract resulting in an open wound known as a peptic ulcer (Malfertheiner & Mearin, 2017). Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility.
Impact of Behavior on Pathophysiology of Gastric Acid Disorders
Lifestyle behaviors such as feeding behaviors impact the pathophysiology of gastric acid disorders. For example, eating hot foods increases the secretion of intestinal acids. Equally, alcohol intake stimulates acid to be produced whereas soft drinks can induce gastroesophageal reflux. Intake of spicy food causes gastric acid to be produced and also irritates the mucosa which can lead to gastritis (Jia et al, 2017). Hunt et al (2015) further add that intake of fatty foods increases the risk of GERD and causes symptoms such as heartburn. Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility.
Diagnosis of Gastric Acid Disorders
Upper endoscopy is used to diagnose esophagitis and any inflammation of the intestinal tract. Endoscopy is also used to collect tissue from the intestinal tract for biopsy or further tests. H. Pylori test is used to examine if H. Pylori bacterium is the cause of the gastric disorder. An x-ray can also be performed to identify any abnormality within the GIT (Madisch et al, 2018). Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility.
Treatment of Gastric Disorders
Treatment for gastric disorders includes the use of antacids, antibiotics and behavioral modifications. Antacids can neutralize the gastric acid within the GIT and also relieve the pain resulting from the abdominal ulcers. Antibiotics treat H. Pylori while behavioral modifications help in reducing an individual’s risk to gastric disorders. For example, behavioral modifications such as avoiding fatty food, acid food, and carbonated drinks reduce the risk for gastric disorders (Lamount, 2015). Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility.