Global Burden of COPD Discussion

Global Burden of COPD Discussion

The client is a sixty-year-old baker. Her chief complaint is increased shortness of breath and nonproductive cough. The complaints have lasted over one month and have been affecting her daily activities. The three differential diagnoses for the client include left sided heart failure, pneumonia and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The left sided heart failure describes the process of heart pumping blood using the left ventricle which consequently results in its weakening. The effects of systolic failure from this process lead to buildup of fluid in the lungs while the diastolic effects prevent normal blood pumping capabilities. The symptoms of left sided heart failure are increased shortness of breath, chronic coughs and wheezing, fatigue, irregular heartbeat which could be rapid. The condition also causes crackles in the bases of the lower lobes due to the collection of excessive fluids which necessitates sitting upright to improve breathing. Global Burden of COPD Discussion

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On the other hand, pneumonia is a likely cause of the client’s illness. It is characterized by shortness of breath, cough, fever and shallow breathing, loss of appetite and fatigue (File Jr, 2018). It is a lung infection caused by viruses, bacteria or funguses which cause chest pains. However the client denies having fever and chest pains which disqualify pneumonia from the diagnosis. Another differential diagnosis is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease which describes a combination of progressive long disorders. It is associated with increased breathlessness of the patient caused by emphysema and chronic bronchitis (López‐Campos, Tan & Soriano, 2016). The blockage of the airways causes the breathing difficulties.

From the patient’s subjective and objective information, it is evident that she is suffering from Left-sided heart failure. This is because she complains of having increased shortness of breath and unproductive cough which describe the symptoms of this disorder. Pneumonia is eliminated from the diagnosis by the fact that the cough produced is productive with colored components which are often green. She reports to be often tired which affects her daily activities. Moreover, she presents a history of high blood pressure and coronary heart disease which are suggestive of underlying health problems likely to affect the heart pumping capabilities. COPD is eliminated by the absence of fever and other symptoms reported by the patient. Therefore Left-sided heart failure is the presumptive final diagnosis. Global Burden of COPD Discussion

The treatment plan for the patient is designed following an appropriate diagnosis with the use of advanced technology. The plan will involve the alleviation of symptoms and treatment of the underlying causes of left sided heart failure. An individualized plan for the patient will entail medications and lifestyle changes. Since the patient’s case is not too severe, surgical procedures for the reconstruction of the heart will not be conducted at this stage of the illness.

Medications will be significant in the improvement of cardiac functions. Moreover they will improve breathing and manage the client’s symptoms through the reduction of fluid retention, prevention of possible blood clots and promotion of urination. It will also reduce swelling increase blood flow and open up the narrowed blood vessels. Examples of medications appropriate for the client include bisoprolol, metoprolol and carvedilol (Jacobs et al., 2015). Consequently, lifestyle changes are essential for the patient in the improvement of quality of life as well as the symptoms of the disease.  In this case, gentle aerobic exercise and intake of food supplements low in cholesterol, low fats and low sodium contents.

References

File Jr, T. M. (2018). Patient education: Pneumonia in adults (Beyond the Basics).

Jacobs, W., Konings, T. C., Heymans, M. W., Boonstra, A., Bogaard, H. J., van Rossum, A. C., & Noordegraaf, A. V. (2015). Noninvasive identification of left-sided heart failure in a population suspected of pulmonary arterial hypertension. European Respiratory Journal46(2), 422-430.

López‐Campos, J. L., Tan, W., & Soriano, J. B. (2016). Global burden of COPD. Respirology21(1), 14-23. Global Burden of COPD Discussion

 

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