Health Disparities Assignment Essay

Health Disparities Assignment Essay

Describe the group selected

Hispanics are perhaps the largest minority ethnic group in the USA, representing approximately 17.4% of the national population with the proportion expected to increase to 28.6% (based on current migration trends) in 40 years. The population contributes to the health, cultural diversity and economy of the nation. A review of the group’s health figures reveals that the statistics are modified by social-ecological frameworks that include health services, risk factors, health disparities and determinants of health that influence mortality and morbidity figures. In fact, biological, environmental and social factors have modified the group’s epidemiological profile to result in cancer, cardiovascular diseases and unintentional injuries being the leading causes of mortality among the group. Efforts to address these factors have been restricted by shortage of Hispanic health care providers, limited health literacy, and limited cultural sensitivity. Besides that, underinsurance and uninsured status as well as acculturation barriers remain an obstacle to care access. In addition, cultural foods have contributed to increasing incidences of diabetes and obesity that have worsened the situation (Velasco-Mondragon et al., 2016). In this respect, race and ethnicity have influenced health for Hispanics in the USA. Health Disparities Assignment Essay


Health disparities

For certain medical conditions, Hispanic populations in the USA bear a disproportionate burden of disability, death, injury and disease when compared to other ethnic groups. In fact, disparities exist for five cause of death. The first disparity exists in unintentional injury with Hispanics reporting 8.4% while other ethnicities report 3.9%. The second disparity exists in diabetes with Hispanics reporting 5.0% while other ethnicities report 2.6%. The third disparity exists in homicide with Hispanics reporting 2.9% while other ethnicities report less than 1.3%. The fourth disparity exists in liver disease with Hispanics reporting 2.9% while other ethnicities report less than 1.3%. The final disparity exists in perinatal conditions with Hispanics reporting 2.0% while other ethnicities report less than 1.3%. In addition to the mentioned factors, disparities existing in health indicators that include trailing for persons with health insurance and regular source of ongoing health care, vaccinated persons, prenatal care, participation in moderate physical activity, and obesity (Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health, 2019). Besides that, the Hispanic group is noted to experience nutritional challenges, particularly with regards to how food can be used in prevention with their nutrition education noted to be inadequate. Of particular concern is lifestyle issues and poor nutrition that are linked to diets that either cause or worsen chronic conditions such as hypertension (O’Keefe, 2016). Health Disparities Assignment Essay

Barriers to health

Cultural, socioeconomic, education and sociopolitical factors are noted to act as barriers to health for Hispanics. In fact, these factors have modified the epidemiological profile of the group with particular concerns noted for shortage of Hispanic health care providers, limited health literacy and limited cultural sensitivity. Other concerns are noted for insurance coverage and acculturation barriers that limit access to health care. Also, increasing diabetes and obesity rates from cultural nutrition are offsetting health gains (Verlasco-Mondragon et al., 2016)

Health promotion activities

Health promotion among the Hispanic population has typically focused on education with a view to improving access to preventive health care. This has typically been targeted at traditional and cultural activities that influence health, particularly nutrition and diets. This is based on the awareness that the incidences of cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes are disproportionally higher among Hispanics with this state of affairs being blamed on traditional and cultural foods that are typically fatty/oily without consideration for calorific values (Vince, 2017).

Most effective care plan

The selected approach is preventing and addressing obesity among Hispanic teenagers. The primary management is to reduce the risk of promoting better exercises, nutrition and diets among teenagers. The secondary management is to directly address the existing impact of obesity and offer treatment that would entail having obese teenagers engage in exercises and diet to reduce their BMI into the healthy weight range. Educational materials can be provided to include low impact activities. The tertiary management is to medically manage obesity by conducting screenings that engage Spanish speaking medical personnel who offer education material that facilitate prevention while helping to soften the impact of obesity with regards to recognizing its impact becomes it turns into a larger health care concern.

Cultural beliefs to consider

When considering a care plan for Hispanic populations, there are cultural beliefs and practices that must be considered to include illiteracy, mistrust, illegal immigration status, different cultural beliefs, lack of insurance, and language barriers. In addition, there is a need to explore the belief in traditional folk medicine and alternative therapies, particularly with regards to the possibility of these therapies being safely accommodated alongside conventional therapies. Besides that, medical personnel should be sensitive to Hispanic cultural values of modesty (modestia), respect (respeto), relationship (personalismo), and kindness (simpatia). Also, medical personnel should acknowledge that health beliefs are dependent on acculturation degree, socioeconomic status, and education (Juckett, 2013). Health Disparities Assignment Essay


Culturally competent health promotion for the Hispanic population is best addressed using the Campinha-Bacote Model of Cultural Competence in Healthcare Delivery. The model is appropriate since it considers cultural competence as a process that seeks to improve work ability and efficiency of medical personnel when working with patients as individuals, within families and in cultural groups. Based on the model, the process goes through five steps that begins with cultural awareness, next cultural skill, cultural knowledge, cultural encounter and finally cultural desire. Overall, the model makes it easier for medical personnel to have transcultural interactions (Albougami, Pounds & Alotaibi, 2016).


Albougami, A., Pounds, K. & Alotaibi, J. (2016). Comparison of four cultural competence models in transcultural nursing: a discussion paper. International Archives of Nursing and Health Care, 2(4), 053. doi: 10.23937/2469-5823/1510053. Retrieved from

Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health (2019). Profile: Hispanic/Latino Americans. Retrieved from

Juckett, G. (2013). Caring for Latino patients. American Family Physician, 87(1), 48-54. Retrieved from

O’Keefe, L. (2016). Combating Latino health disparities through nutrition education and cooking. Retrieved from

Velasco-Mondragon, E., Jimenez, A., Palladino-Davis, A., Davis, D. & Escamilla-Cejudo, J. (2016). Hispanic health in the USA: a scope review of the literature. Public Health Review, 37, 31. doi: 10.1186/s40985-016-0043-2

Vince, H. (2017). Health promotion in the Hispanic population. Retrieved from

Health Disparities Assignment Essay


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