Helicobacter Pylori Assignment Paper
Helicobacter Pylori Assignment Paper
Medical experts have associated the occurrence of peptic ulcers to specific foods and stress over the years. However, the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria in 1982 presented a different argument that these microorganisms infect the small bowel and the stomach and thus are responsible for causing peptic ulcer disease. It is also believed to increases the risk of gastritis and stomach cancer development even though not every individual with these bacteria develops cancers. Development of ulcers entails the corrosion of the stomach by stomach acid due to an attack of the mucus lining which offers protection by H. pylori. Helicobacter Pylori Assignment Paper
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is caused by Helicobacter pylori bacteria. This microbe enters the stomach causing peptic ulcers. H. pylori affect more than half of the population in the world even though only a few people get sick from it. The bacteria require little oxygen to survive and hence referred to as microaerophilic. The infection is contagious and even though the spread mechanism is not well understood, contaminated water, contact with unsanitized surfaces and hands facilitate fecal-oral route spread. Moreover, the bacteria can be spread through the direct saliva exchange via the oral-oral route. H. pylori bacteria cause atrophic gastritis in young patients while in older ones, it causes cancer and gastritis. The main cause of this infection is poor sanitation.
Signs and Symptoms of H. pylori
Most of the population affected by H, pylori do not develop any symptoms. The most common signs of H. pylori include nausea, abdominal pain and inflammation associated with acute gastritis. Symptoms persist with the progression of the disease to chronic gastritis over time. These are characterized by belching, bloating, nausea, stomach pain, vomiting and, lack of appetite. Pain is apparent during the early morning hours, between meals or on empty stomach. Stomach ulcers are manifested through vomiting of blood, unexplained loss of weight, blood in stools, constipation and diarrhea, swallowing difficulties as well as nausea and vomiting (Yang et al., 2016).
- pylori can be detected through stool tests, blood or breath. The medical history of an individual, physical examinations endoscopy and special X-rays are also used to view and examine abnormalities present in the inside of the stomach. Urea breath test involves the administration of special drinks with urea after which an individual breathes in a bag that is consequently taken for testing whereby the presence of carbon dioxide indicates the presence of H. pylori. The differential diagnosis for H. pylori include biliary colic, esophageal cancer, pancreatitis, gastroparesis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), celiac disease, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and pericarditis (Mentis, Lehours & Mégraud, 2015). Helicobacter Pylori Assignment Paper
The treatment of H. pylori is influenced by the manifested symptoms. This is because, it is considered beneficial t some individuals in suppressing ghrelin, a hormone that causes hunger and also normalizing the production of excessive acids in the stomach. Treatment of H. pylori infection focuses on the repair of stomach injuries and eradication of the disease. Antibiotics have been used over the ears. However, due to increased resistance, a combination of multiple antibiotics and acid reducing drugs provide a more aggressive approach (Thung et al., 2016). The administration of a combination of an oral proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin and clarithromycin is used as first-line therapy for H. pylori (Yang et al., 2016). Moreover, oral PPI, metronidazole and tetracycline as well as bismuth subsalicylate tablets act as second-line therapy and are used in the protection of the stomach lining for 14 days. Sequential therapy is also effective in the treatment for H. pylori.
Related patient’s education
Patient’s education on H. pylori involves prevention and coping. Since the bacteria is widespread across the world and there is limited information regarding the infection, it is essential to promote hygiene education which includes proper sanitation and hand cleaning to prevent contamination and spread of the bacteria. Patient’s education also involves learning of how to consume healthy, clean and safe water and properly prepared fruits and vegetables. Healthcare educators also advice on the foods and drug types to avoid to prevent worsening of symptoms and promote coping.
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Prevention of H. pylori begins with screening and testing to determine the bacterial concentration in the stomach and their potential to cause harm. In addition, washing hands after the use of the toilet helps prevent contamination from fecal material. Cleaning of fruits and foods before eating and preparing as well as teaching children on hygiene is significant in preventing infections. The food should also be cooked properly to ensure that all bacteria are destroyed. Furthermore, food that is cooked and served by hands that are not washed should be avoided. Consequently, lifestyle modifications should be done to prevent stress, alcohol, spicy foods and smoking which might worsen the pain and slow down the healing of stomach ulcers. Helicobacter Pylori Assignment Paper
Follow up Care
Follow up care for H. pylori infection involves scheduled appointments to monitor the progress of medication after two weeks. This investigates the tolerance and adherence as well as outcomes of treatment. Patients also should call the doctor for any consultations. Worsening of symptoms should be followed by immediate visit to the hospital. Tests should also be conducted during the course of treatment and after to rule out the risks of H. pylori infection relapse.
Mentis, A., Lehours, P., & Mégraud, F. (2015). Epidemiology and Diagnosis of H elicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter, 20, 1-7.
Thung, I., Aramin, H., Vavinskaya, V., Gupta, S., Park, J. Y., Crowe, S. E., & Valasek, M. A. (2016). the global emergence of Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics, 43(4), 514-533.
Yang, J. C., Lin, C. J., Wang, H. L., Chen, J. D., Kao, J. Y., Shun, C. T., … & Chang, Y. T. (2015). High-dose dual therapy is superior to standard first-line or rescue therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 13(5), 895-905. Helicobacter Pylori Assignment Paper