Identify and explain the types of problems or mistakes that might occur in such occupations due to the attentional blink

Identify and explain the types of problems or mistakes that might occur in such occupations due to the attentional blink

Assignment 1: The Mozart Effect In this assignment, you will read an article about the Mozart effect and identify various parts of the research process. This exercise will help you learn how to read a research article and to understand the research process. Read the following article: • Rauscher, F. H., Shaw, G. L., & Ky, K. N. (1993). Music and spatial task performance. Nature, 365. 6447: 611. (October 14, 1993). (ProQuest Document ID 76004658). In your article summary, respond to the following questions: • State the research hypothesis in your own words. Identify the independent and dependent variables. • What were some variables the researchers controlled in their study? Why was this necessary? • What evidence do the researchers offer as a test of their hypothesis? Is this evidence empirical (observable)? Is it valid? • What explanation do the researchers offer for their findings? Does the evidence justify this explanation? Read the following article: Jenkins, J.S. (2001). The Mozart effect. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 94, 170-172. Based on your readings, respond to the following: • Do you think there is any merit in the study (Rauscher, Shaw, & Ky, 1993)? Give three reasons for your position. • Does the study take individual differences in spatial ability into account? Explain your answer. • What are two ways in which the experiment could be modified to make the results more generalizable? Write a 5–6-page paper in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. DUE By Wednesday, September 10, 2014,

Assignment 2: Attentional Blink There are many stimuli in your environment of which you are not aware. You use attention to filter out unimportant stimuli and focus on relevant stimuli. However, there are circumstances under which you cannot perceive stimuli, regardless of how hard you “pay attention.” One situation is when visual stimuli are presented in quick succession. If the interval between the two stimuli is short enough, you do not perceive the second stimulus. This lapse in attention is known as attentional blink. In this assignment, you will experience the attentional blink for yourself and will also read about practical implications of the phenomenon. Access the CogLab demonstration Attentional Blink. Follow the instructions to complete the demonstration. Read the following article: • Livesey, E. J., Harris, I. M., & Harris, J. A. (2009). Attentional changes during implicit learning: Signal validity protects a target stimulus from the attentional blink. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35(2), 408-408-422. doi:10.1037/a0014525 (ProQuest Document ID: 614494049) Using the experience from the CogLab demonstration and information from the article, write a paper that addresses the following: • Explain how the attentional blink relates to attention. Analyze how the variation in time influences the probability of seeing the second target letter. Explain the circumstances under which the attentional blink can be eliminated. • In the CogLab demonstration, letters were used as targets. The target used can influence the duration of one’s attentional blink and whether the attentional blink even occurs. Complete the following tasks: • Propose at least two other targets that could be used to induce the attentional blink. • Predict the effect each of your suggested targets would have on the duration of one’s attentional blink as compared to the CogLab activity you completed. • Explain the reasoning behind your predictions. • Present and discuss at least three occupations in which workers’ performance could be adversely affected by attentional blink.. • Several years ago, some vehicle models came with a heads-up display (HUD). Instead of looking down at a panel on the dashboard, speed, distance traveled, fuel level, and time appeared to be displayed over the hood of the car. Discuss this design in terms of divided attention and attentional blink. Do you think the design was a good idea? Write a 4-page paper in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. By Wednesday, September 17, 2014,

Assignment 3: LASA 1: False Memories The US legal system places a lot of importance on eyewitness memory. Most people would report that they can accurately convey what they saw in a particular situation. However, these ideas are not supported by research. Instead, research shows that memory is quite malleable and is affected by many factors. This research repeatedly demonstrates that people do not remember exactly what they experienced. This module’s experiment will show you firsthand how memory for events is not always one hundred percent accurate. Access the CogLab demonstration False Memory. Follow the instructions to complete the demonstration to familiarize yourself with false memory. Then locate at least one research study from a peer-reviewed journal that examined how eyewitness memory can be affected by false memories. Based on your research, respond to the following situation: You are considered to be an expert in false memories, and a local district attorney has therefore requested your expertise on the following case: On Tuesday, March 6, 2007, a bank was robbed in Slidell, LA. It was just after opening time, 9:04 a.m., and there were barely any customers, when a car arrived and parked in the side parking lot of the bank. Two men came out of the car and walked to the entrance. Both wore dark clothing. Upon entering the bank, they held out guns and asked for the manager. When the manager identified herself, the smaller of the two robbers ordered her to open the safe. Meanwhile, the other robber, a tall, and burley man, walked around holding his gun in his outstretched arm, and threatening the remaining employees and customers. The manager complied and the smaller robber collected all the money and valuables from the safe. After five minutes, the big robber asked if his companion was ready to go. When he was, the two ran back to their car, and drove away. The district attorney has asked that you create a presentation about false memory and explain how it might influence this case. He asks that you specifically address the following: • Describe false memory and false memory experiments. Use the CogLab experiment to illustrate false memory experiments, special distracters, and normal distracters. • Describe at least one research study from a peer-reviewed journal that investigated how eyewitness memory can be affected by false memories. • Explain how false memory might influence this particular case. Use specifics from the description of the case, the CogLab experiment, and research to support your answer. • Using evidence from the case, the CogLab experiment, and outside research, justify why eyewitness testimonies should or should not carry weight in criminal proceedings. • Discuss any procedures which can increase or reduce the occurrence of false memories when reporting eyewitness events. Remember, your presentation is designed to help the jury understand false memory and how it might influence the eyewitness testimony of this case. You will have ten minutes to present. Since this is a legal case, you must include formally written slide notes (proper grammar, proper paragraphs, APA formatting, and academic tone) with research to support your claims. The presentation will be a legal document in this case, so make it worthy of being legally binding!

Develop a 5–6-slide presentation in PowerPoint format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. By Wednesday, September 24, 2014,

Assignment 4: Preparation for Generating a Policy Proposal Although some states and cities have passed laws to ban texting and using handheld phones while driving, there is no current law to ban all cell phone use while driving. However, according to the National Safety Council (2009), 28 percent of all crashes—1.6 million per year—are caused by cell phone use and texting by drivers. The mission of a new national nonprofit organization called FocusDriven, patterned after Mothers Against Drunk Driving, is to make phone use while driving as illegal and socially unacceptable as drunk driving. US Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood supports FocusDriven and its efforts. According to the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, LaHood said that this movement would become “an army of people traveling the countryside” to push for bans on cell-phone use and tough enforcement (Schmitz, 2010). As a political advocate interested in this issue, you will be writing a policy proposal that utilizes the current research to propose a solution to the issue and submitting it in Module 5. Annotated Bibliography: Effect of Cell Phone Use Before you can write this proposal research, you will need to conduct initial research on the science behind this initiative. For this assignment, use the Argosy University online library resources to locate research reports from peer-reviewed journals that discuss the effects of cell phone use on vision, attention, perception, or memory. In selecting at least five research reports from peer-reviewed journals relevant to the topic, make sure they address one or more of the following issues: • How do texting, handheld phones, and hands-free phones compare with each other in their effects on driving? • How do other, traditional distractions compare to cell phone use in their effects on driving (such as eating, attending to children, talking to passengers, listening to music/news, etc.)? • Can cell phone use while driving be compared with drunk driving? Why or why not? • What other variables (such as age) can affect driving while using a cell phone? Based on your reading of the five articles, create an annotated bibliography for each of the five sources. Each annotation should consist of the APA reference entry followed by a paragraph-long summary of the articles. In your summary, provide answers for the questions below. For the last question, think about how the research results could be generalized to fit other environments or not be generalized. • Summarize the main ideas in the reference. What were they investigating? • How were the studies conducted? What was the sample size? Is it appropriate? • Were the studies conducted in the real world or was a simulated environment used? • How might these methodological considerations affect the research findings and the conclusions drawn from them? How does this article fit in with your paper? How did it influence your own ideas about your paper? Your annotated bibliography should be at 3–4 pages in length. Go to the Doc Sharing area for sample-annotated bibliography. This document will help you complete your paper more successfully. Be sure to include a title page and reference page listing your articles. By Wednesday, October 1, 2014,

Assignment 5: LASA 2: Generating a Policy Proposal Although some states and cities have passed laws to ban texting and using handheld phones while driving, there is no current law to ban all cell phone use while driving. However, according to the National Safety Council (2009), 28 percent of all crashes—1.6 million per year—are caused by cell phone use and texting by drivers. The mission of a new national nonprofit organization called FocusDriven, patterned after Mothers Against Drunk Driving, is to make phone use while driving as illegal and socially unacceptable as drunk driving. US Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood supports FocusDriven and its efforts: According to the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, LaHood said this movement will become “an army of people traveling the countryside” to push for bans on cell phone use and tough enforcement (Schmit, 2010). As a political advocate interested in this issue, you will be writing a policy proposal that utilizes the current research to propose a solution to the issue and submit it in this assignment. Please note that your proposal is not an opinion/position paper, and your conclusions need to be based on the scientific research you reviewed earlier. Please follow the typical steps in proper academic writing (planning, outlining, drafting, revising, proofing, and editing) to generate the following proposal structure: Introduction In the introduction, you should set up the purpose for the proposal, provide a bit of background on the topic, and present your thesis. Policy Now that you have researched a variety of studies (in M4: Assignment 2), compile that information together to create a recommendation for policy makers regarding cell phone use while driving. 1: In a one-page summary, compare and contrast the results of the various studies regarding the cognitive abilities that are affected during cell phone use while driving. 2: Using that research, develop and explain particular recommendations for policy makers. For instance, restrict texting, or regulate the use of hand-held phones. All your recommendations must be supported by your research findings. 3: Based on the gaps in current research, describe the variables, populations, and situations which you would like to see future research address. Conclusion Review the important current research, your conclusions from that research, and how the future could look in both policy and research. Keep your goal in mind: To convince the reader to support your current policy proposal and future research to examine this issue more closely. Your proposal should be written in APA style (which includes a title page with running header and a reference page), and free of typographical and grammatical errors. The body of your proposal should be 4–5 pages long. By Monday, October 6, 2014,

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