Immune Modulation of Atherosclerosis Essay

Immune Modulation of Atherosclerosis Essay

Introduction

Atherosclerosis is a vascular disease characterized by hardening and accumulation of plaque in the blood vessels, especially the arteries. Plaque is a build-up of fat, cholesterol, and other substances (Dong et al. 2020). These substances restrict blood flow and can burst to trigger a blood clot. It is the leading cause of stroke heart attacks and peripheral vascular diseases, and the leading cause of death in the western world. The risk of atherosclerosis decreases with the advancing age and is more common in men 40 years old and above.

ORDER HERE TODAY

Pathophysiology

The main cause of atherosclerosis is hypercholesterolemia. Increased levels of cholesterol in the blood cause changes in the permeability of the blood vessels which allows movement of lipids (low-density lipoproteins) into the arterial walls (Gustavsson, et al, 2020). The endothelial cells adhere to the monocytes that express the adhesion molecules such as vascular adhesions that are oxidized and become very strong. This process enhances the accumulation of more cholesterol massively and the result is narrowing and hardening of the arteries.

Cause and Risk Factors of Atherosclerosis

The main cause of atherosclerosis is hypercholesterolemia, especially low-density lipoproteins. The associated risk factors are; insulin resistance and diabetes type two, overweight or obesity, lack of physical exercise, high blood pressure, and smoking (Nilsson, & Hansson, (2020).

Possible Consequences

When atherosclerosis narrows arteries near the heart, it causes coronary heart disease that can cause chest pain or heart attack (López-Melgar et al., 2020). It also causes a peripheral vascular disease that causes slow wound healing, especially in diabetic patients. It causes renal artery blockage leading to chronic kidney disease and high uncontrolled blood pressure. When the plaque accumulates in the arteries of the brain, it causes aneurysms.

Prevention strategies

All people at risk of atherosclerosis are encouraged to practice, healthy diet, regular physical exercise, and control of insulin levels in diabetic patients (Chen et al., 2020)

Treatment modalities

Medications that reduce the levels of cholesterol such as statins, Stent surgery for less severe atherosclerosis to keep it open, and heart by-pass surgery (Flynn et al 2020). Atherosclerosis is a lifestyle disorder with fatal complications.

Atherosclerosis
Risk factors and causes
Possible consequences
Prevention Strategies
Treatment Modalities
be sure to examine the pathophysiological factors that influence the incidence and manifestations of acute, episodic, and chronic diseases in populations across the lifespan.
Make sure all of the content topics of the assignment have been addressed.

Do not use sources such as Wikipedia or UpToDate as a reference.

References

Chen, H. J., Tas, S. W., & de Winther, M. P. (2020). Type-I interferons in atherosclerosis. The Journal of Experimental Medicine217(1).

Dong, Cui, Wang, B., Bhattacharjee, & Ouyang, K. (2020). Epsin-mediated degradation of IP3R1 fuels atherosclerosis. Nature communications11(1), 1-16.

Flynn, Kraakman, Tikellis, Lee,  Hanssen,  Kammoun, & Hortle, F. (2020). Transient intermittent hyperglycemia accelerates atherosclerosis Circulation Research127(7), 877-892.

Gustavsson, A. M., van Westen, D., Stomrud, E., Engström, G., Nägga, K., & Hansson, O. (2020). Midlife atherosclerosis and development of Alzheimer or vascular dementia. Annals of neurology87(1), 52-62.

López-Melgar, Fernández-Friera, Oliva, García-Ruiz, Sánchez-Cabo, Bueno, & Fernández-Ortiz, A. (2020).Subclinical atherosclerosis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology75(14), 1617-1627.

Nilsson, & Hansson, (2020).Immune modulation of atherosclerosis. Circulation Research126(9), 1281-1296.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
hiw 01
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Nursing Papers Writer
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
Trustpilot
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat