Immune Modulation of Atherosclerosis Essay

Immune Modulation of Atherosclerosis Essay


Atherosclerosis is a vascular disease characterized by hardening and accumulation of plaque in the blood vessels, especially the arteries. Plaque is a build-up of fat, cholesterol, and other substances (Dong et al. 2020). These substances restrict blood flow and can burst to trigger a blood clot. It is the leading cause of stroke heart attacks and peripheral vascular diseases, and the leading cause of death in the western world. The risk of atherosclerosis decreases with the advancing age and is more common in men 40 years old and above.



The main cause of atherosclerosis is hypercholesterolemia. Increased levels of cholesterol in the blood cause changes in the permeability of the blood vessels which allows movement of lipids (low-density lipoproteins) into the arterial walls (Gustavsson, et al, 2020). The endothelial cells adhere to the monocytes that express the adhesion molecules such as vascular adhesions that are oxidized and become very strong. This process enhances the accumulation of more cholesterol massively and the result is narrowing and hardening of the arteries.

Cause and Risk Factors of Atherosclerosis

The main cause of atherosclerosis is hypercholesterolemia, especially low-density lipoproteins. The associated risk factors are; insulin resistance and diabetes type two, overweight or obesity, lack of physical exercise, high blood pressure, and smoking (Nilsson, & Hansson, (2020).

Possible Consequences

When atherosclerosis narrows arteries near the heart, it causes coronary heart disease that can cause chest pain or heart attack (López-Melgar et al., 2020). It also causes a peripheral vascular disease that causes slow wound healing, especially in diabetic patients. It causes renal artery blockage leading to chronic kidney disease and high uncontrolled blood pressure. When the plaque accumulates in the arteries of the brain, it causes aneurysms.

Prevention strategies

All people at risk of atherosclerosis are encouraged to practice, healthy diet, regular physical exercise, and control of insulin levels in diabetic patients (Chen et al., 2020)

Treatment modalities

Medications that reduce the levels of cholesterol such as statins, Stent surgery for less severe atherosclerosis to keep it open, and heart by-pass surgery (Flynn et al 2020). Atherosclerosis is a lifestyle disorder with fatal complications.

Risk factors and causes
Possible consequences
Prevention Strategies
Treatment Modalities
be sure to examine the pathophysiological factors that influence the incidence and manifestations of acute, episodic, and chronic diseases in populations across the lifespan.
Make sure all of the content topics of the assignment have been addressed.

Do not use sources such as Wikipedia or UpToDate as a reference.


Chen, H. J., Tas, S. W., & de Winther, M. P. (2020). Type-I interferons in atherosclerosis. The Journal of Experimental Medicine217(1).

Dong, Cui, Wang, B., Bhattacharjee, & Ouyang, K. (2020). Epsin-mediated degradation of IP3R1 fuels atherosclerosis. Nature communications11(1), 1-16.

Flynn, Kraakman, Tikellis, Lee,  Hanssen,  Kammoun, & Hortle, F. (2020). Transient intermittent hyperglycemia accelerates atherosclerosis Circulation Research127(7), 877-892.

Gustavsson, A. M., van Westen, D., Stomrud, E., Engström, G., Nägga, K., & Hansson, O. (2020). Midlife atherosclerosis and development of Alzheimer or vascular dementia. Annals of neurology87(1), 52-62.

López-Melgar, Fernández-Friera, Oliva, García-Ruiz, Sánchez-Cabo, Bueno, & Fernández-Ortiz, A. (2020).Subclinical atherosclerosis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology75(14), 1617-1627.

Nilsson, & Hansson, (2020).Immune modulation of atherosclerosis. Circulation Research126(9), 1281-1296.

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