PATHO WK 10 Assignment 2 Paper
PATHO WK 10 Assignment 2 Paper
The Pathophysiology of Disorders: Seizures
A seizure is defined as a paroxysmal change of neurological function that occurs due to the extreme, hypersynchronous release of neurons within the brain. This is in line with Stafstrom & Carmant (2015) who explain that seizures are involuntary manifestations of the cerebral cortex that occur when there is an abrupt imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory forces in the cortical neurons system. PATHO WK 10 Assignment 2 Paper
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Seizures occur when there is an uncontrollable discharge from a group of neurons due to extreme excitation or inhibition loss. Neurotransmission occurs through synapse and ion channels are the main components of synapses (Stafstrom & Carmant, 2015). Therefore, the root cause of seizures is the breakdown of the ion channels due to an imbalance between the excitation and inhibition within the brain. This imbalance occurs when there is an alteration at several levels of brain function such as genetic alterations as well as alterations involving subcellular signaling cascades and general neuronal circuits (Verellen & Jose, 2017). Factors attributable to the imbalance between the excitation and inhibition can be acquired or genetic. Genetic pathologies and deficits that lead to seizures can take place anywhere from the circuit level such as deficits in the synaptic connectivity to receptor levels such as defective γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA], or even defective ionic channel function. On the other hand, acquired factors leading to excitation and inhibition imbalance such as structural alteration of hippocampal circuitry can alter the circuit function. A third of seizures occur due to genetic abnormalities that involve ion channels while about 20% are due to structural lesions (Kumar & Sigh, 2016). Patients with structural lesions have more neurological abnormalities that are normally environmentally acquired.
How Age impacts the Pathophysiology of Seizures
The geriatric population has the highest incidence of seizures. Factors that contribute to the high prevalence of seizures among the elderly include polypharmacy that may induce seizures, as well as cerebrovascular disease, which has been shown to be a significant risk factor to seizures among the elderly (Kaur et al, 2018). Other risk factors that predispose geriatric population to seizures include strokes, head trauma, and neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia. The treatment and diagnosis of seizures for the geriatric population are complex because of age, kidney and liver function, adverse effects of medications, and co-morbid conditions (Giussani, 2018).PATHO WK 10 Assignment 2 Paper
Giussani B. (2018). Aging and the Epidemiology of Epilepsy. Neuroepidemiology. 1(51),216–223.
Kaur S, Garg R, Simmi A, Pal S & Pal R. (2018). Adult-onset seizures: Clinical, etiological, and radiological profile. J Family Med Prim Care. 7(1), 191–197.
Kumar S & Sigh G. (2016). Pathophysiology of epilepsy: An updated review. International Journal of Medical and Health Research. 2(10), 32-36.
Stafstrom C & Carmant L. (2015). Seizures and Epilepsy: An Overview for Neuroscientists. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 5(6), a022426.
Verellen R & Jose C. (2017). Pathophysiological Considerations of Seizures, Epilepsy, and Status Epilepticus in the Elderly. Aging Dis. 2(4), 278–285. PATHO WK 10 Assignment 2 Paper