Pathophysiology Week 4 Discussion
Pathophysiology Week 4 Discussion
Veins and arteries are vital elements of the cardiovascular system. They carry the blood supply through the body and are essential for proper function. Sometimes veins and arteries malfunction, resulting in cardiovascular disorders. Malfunctions of arteries and veins are similar to malfunctions of a water hose. Consider the structure and function of a hose. A tap releases water, which then travels through the hose and comes out the other end. If the hose has been dormant for several months, dirt and rusty particles might build up inside, resulting in a restricted flow of water. Similarly, buildup of plaque inside the coronary arteries restricts blood flow and leads to disorders such as coronary heart disease. Pathophysiology Week 4 Discussion This disease is one of the most common cardiovascular disorders, and according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (2011), is the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States. In this Discussion, you examine the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders such as coronary heart disease. To Prepare Review this week’s media presentation on alterations of cardiovascular functions, as well as Chapter 24 in the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders. Select one patient factor: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Consider how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders. Select one of the following alterations of cardiovascular disorders: peripheral arterial disease, myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or dysrhythmia. Think about how hypertension or dyslipidemia can lead to the alteration you selected. By Day 3 Post a description of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders, including how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology. Then, explain how hypertension or dyslipidemia can lead to the alteration you selected for patients with the factor you identified.
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How Hypertension Leads to Congestive Heart Failure
In hypertension, the blood vessels become more narrowed with increased pressure and this makes them be less elastic in pumping blood. Therefore, the high pressure and inelasticity contribute to the difficulty of the heart experienced by the heart as it pumps against this pressure, causing it to work harder (Rosenkranz et al., 2015). In the process, the heart muscles continue to thicken resulting in an enlarged heart. This occurs as a compensatory mechanism to cope with the increased demands gradually reducing its efficiency. The larger the heart becomes the harder it functions to meet the body’s demands for nutrients and oxygen to an extent that it may be unable to pump adequate blood in supplying oxygen and nutrients that meet the body’s demands, a condition known as heart failure(Guazzi, 2014).
How Behavior Might Impact the Pathophysiology
In this context, behavior refers to lifestyle practices such as physical exercise and dietary intake. Individuals who feed on high calories, alcohol sugars and fats increase the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in the blood. Such diets can also lead to atherosclerosis where blood vessels narrow increasing the risk of hypertension and diabetes which can potentially result in heart failure (Guazzi, 2014). Lack of physical exercise promotes obesity which is generally a risk factor of diabetes and hypertension that can easily result in heart failure. Pathophysiology Week 4 Discussion
How Hypertension Leads to Congestive Heart Failure with Behavior
The world health organization recommends that, hypertensive patients should engage in daily physical exercise failure to which, high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol can easily form fatty deposits within arteries, increasing the pressure within blood vessels and cause the heart to strain while pumping blood leading to heart failure (Tham, et al., 2015).
Guazzi, M. (2014). Pulmonary hypertension in heart failure preserved ejection fraction: prevalence, pathophysiology, and clinical perspectives. Circulation: Heart Failure, 7(2), 367-377.
Rosenkranz, S., Gibbs, J. S. R., Wachter, R., De Marco, T., Vonk-Noordegraaf, A., & Vachiery, J. L. (2015). Left ventricular heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. European heart journal, 37(12), 942-954.
Tham, Y. K., Bernardo, B. C., Ooi, J. Y., Weeks, K. L., & McMullen, J. R. (2015). Pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure: signaling pathways and novel therapeutic targets. Archives of toxicology, 89(9), 1401-1438 Pathophysiology Week 4 Discussion