Postmodernism Assignment Discussion
Part 1: Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the perspective of postmodern relativism within health care
The Christian perspective on spirituality is that it is the prism of theology and religion that explains the existence of God as an almighty being who supersedes everyone and everything. To be more precise, the concept of spirituality within the realm of Christian beliefs is the explanation for the purpose, meaning and truth of all life on earth with the introduction of transcendental perspective on all life experiences. That is to imply that in as much as we make choices as humans, spirituality would perceive these choices as simply following a direction predetermined by God and that nothing would happen without God allowing it. The implication is that spirituality has symbolic and theological functions (Igboin, 2015). Also, Christians perceive ethics as the capacity to conform to the expectations of spirituality in terms of what God expects and how we can live with God’s instructions especially if the instructions are clear with no ambiguity. The Christian perspective of both ethics and spirituality has implications for healthcare through setting boundaries for acceptable actions in the process of lessening human suffering, restoring life and augmenting wellbeing (Bowie, 2013; Heinrichs, Oser & Lovat, 2013). Postmodernism Assignment Discussion
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Postmodern relativism presents the idea that there is no absolute truth. This is in contrast to the notions of spiritualism and ethics that advance the notion of absolute truth, rights and wrongs. To be more precise, postmodern relativism accepts the nation that God exists and there is a possibility that God does not exist. In essence, it accepts that contrasting ideas are valid and no single idea should be considered as an absolute truth even as the contrasting idea is discarded simply because it is contradictory. Applying postmodern relativism to ethics would show that all ethical rights and wrongs would be subject to change based on circumstances. That is to say that what one group considers unethical would be considered ethical by another group (Zavada, 2019). Postmodernism Assignment Discussion
Part 2: Scientism
Scientism is the idea that hard science is that only true source of genuine knowledge about reality thus providing superior scientific knowledge. This is based on the awareness that hard sciences (such as physics, biology and chemistry) rely on factual, testable and replicable data when making assertions. This is contrasted with soft sciences (such as ethics and philosophy) that only offer conjecture and guesses about reality thus providing inferior scientific knowledge. The differentiation between hard and soft science is justified by claims that hard science relies on falsification, experimentation and skepticism when presenting explanatory principles. In contrast, soft science relies on subjectivisms that is easily influenced by human nature so that it is not uncommon to have contrasting ideas about the same principles. Overall, scientism is based on the notion that hard sciences have the intellectual authority to offer real knowledge (Moreland, 2018).
Scientism distinguishes between the values of hard and soft sciences based on arguments that appear valid. However, there are two arguments that can be presented to counter scientism. The first counterargument is that hard sciences do not offer absolute facts and truths. Rather they offer propositional truths that are subject to change even as new information is acquired. Similar to soft sciences, hard sciences simply offer a perspective of reality and not a catalog of inflexible principles and irrefutable facts. This implies that any information offered by soft sciences and hard sciences is disputable. The second counterargument is that hard science is dangerously tyrannical in its overreliance on rationalism that seeks to disregard personal opinion. Such tyranny is counterproductive since willful thought (a hallmark of soft science) is necessary to explore and acquire new truths for hard sciences (Briggs, 2019).
(a) What is ultimate reality?
The ultimate reality is the belief that every person is that product of his/her interactions with the environment. This means that everything in the environment (neighbors, school, parents, government, media, and so on) has an influence on the thought processes that the individual will apply, such as ethical principles and beliefs to be upheld. For instance, an individual residing in a crime infested area will accept the necessity of civilians owning guns to ensure that they secure their property, while an individual residing in a crime-free are will accept that law enforcement officers and agencies are enough to ensure that their property is secure. This makes it clear that ultimate reality is all about reason and experience as factors that influence perception of life and decision-making.
(b) What is the nature of the universe?
The universe is an existence that is in constant motion and ever changing, relying on energy transfer and transformation to drive the change. In fact, the direction and extent of change is reliant on energy conversion, evolution, extinction, and competition as prioritizing processes. Energy conversion relies on gravity and chemical reactions, occurring in the sun and other stars at the center of systems, to provide energy that drives all activities in these systems to include life and motion. To take the earth, life relies on solar energy that is converted in plants and transferred to animals and other life forms. Evolution creates opportunities for adaptation and selection where life forms and matched to environments that best fit them even as competition between the life forms eliminate those that are less competitive. This is particularly seen when food and space are limited. Extinction refers to the complete removal of a species from an environment due to disaster events and competition. Competition is the inherent occurrence to determine who gets what resources within an environment.
(c) What is a human being?
A human being is a species designation of a biological entity that has the highest capacity for thought, adaptability and competition on earth. They have the highest capacity for thought that allows them to adapt their environment to their needs and control other life forms on earth. For instance, they have created clothes that allow them to comfortably survive in all weather and ecological spectrums such as underwater, desert, mountains, and ice fields. They are identified through specification whereby they are designated as Homo sapiens with all persons with this designation capable of reproducing. The species is validated by genetic profiles that are instrumental in determining reproduction capacities and morphological profiles, such as gender and race. In addition, the individuals are differentiated by gender (males and females) that determines the capacity for reproduction through combining gametes from the two genders. Postmodernism Assignment Discussion
(d) What is knowledge?
Knowledge is the set of skills, information and facts that are acquired through education and experience. Education would entail attending formal and informal processes where theoretical knowledge is imparted. Experience entails taking part in practical exercises. Knowledge is progressive and allows individuals to gain awareness and familiarity with their environment and the situations in the environments, know their capabilities and limitations. This implies that the more knowledgeable persons will have greater awareness and fewer limitations when compared to the less knowledgeable persons.
(e) What is your basis of ethics?
Ethics is based on two ideas. The first idea is that ethics should be based on personal awareness and opinion as well as beliefs in determining the difference between right and wrong. This is influenced by interactions with the environment, such as the notion of ethics as presented by religion, culture, community and family. The second idea is that ethics should be based on public beliefs and principles. This are typically the result of public discussions and consensus with a view to minimizing harm and maximizing benefits for the most number of people. For instance, laws on confidentiality are intended to ensure that personal information is only accessible to authorized persons who must use the information for pre-agreed purposes. The two ideas on ethics interact to determine how individual approach ethical situations and the decisions they make.
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(f) What is the purpose of your existence?
My purpose for existing is to create opportunities for my future generations even as I actively seek to better the world. To be more precise, my pursuit of a career is to keep me happy and interest while improving my earning potential so that I am able to take care of my children in the future and offer them better opportunities such as good health care and education. This allows me to create opportunities for my future generations since my children will build on what I provide for them, such as using the education I pay for to pursue good careers. In addition, I actively seek to better the world by making decisions and choices that ensure the least harm and most benefits. Besides that, I exist to serve God since I was created for this purpose. As a Christian, I believe that I as created by God to advance his glory, and my actions should be reflective of the glory of God, always making the right choices while considering what god would want of me. Postmodernism Assignment Discussion
Bowie, N. (2013). Business ethics in the 21st century. New York, NY: Springer.
Briggs, W. (2019). In opposition to scientism. Retrieved from https://wmbriggs.com/post/26885/
Heinrichs, K., Oser, F. & Lovat, T. (2013). Handbook of moral motivation: theories, models, and applications. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Igboin, B. (2015). Spirituality and medical practice: a Christian perspective. Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, 12(4). doi: 10.20529/IJME.2015.054. Retrieved from http://ijme.in/articles/spirituality-and-medical-practice-a-christian-perspective/?galley=html
Moreland, J. (2018). What is scientism? Retrieved from https://www.crossway.org/articles/what-is-scientism/
Zavada, J. (2019). Postmodernism definition. Retrieved from https://www.learnreligions.com/what-is-postmodernism-700692
Postmodernism Assignment Discussion