Report on Interview and Patient’s Medications
Report on Interview and Patient’s Medications
This report presents the findings of the interview carried out with the patient. According to the patient, he has been taking the medications for about 5-7 years. The patient further reported that he is taking heart medications. It was confirmed that the patient is on seven types of medications that will be discussed in the report. From the interview, adherence to medication is high because he never misses his prescribed medications. However, the patient’s knowledge about his medication is low. Accordingly, this report describes different types of medication the patient is taking, as well as the teaching plan for the patient.
According to the patient, this medication was prescribed as a pain reliever. Acetaminophen belongs to the class of analgesics and antipyretics. The dosage for the patient is 650 mg four times a day and the patient was advised not to exceed more than 4g/day because this would be an overdose. The route of administration for the medication is oral. The mechanism of action for acetaminophen (Tylenol) is that it inhibits the production of prostaglandin in both peripheral tissues and CNS. Accordingly, the medication relieves pain by increasing the pain threshold; by necessitating a higher level of pain before an individual experiences pain (Roberts et al, 2015).
There are various adverse and side effects associated with acetaminophen. The most serious adverse effect is liver damage which mostly occurs due to higher doses. Other common side effects include nausea, stomachache, severe dizziness, headache, itching, loss of appetite, breathing problems, chest pain, and sometimes jaundice (Roberts et al, 2015).Report on Interview and Patient’s Medications
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Diltiazem (Cardizem DC)
This medication was prescribed to the patient for the management and control of his hypertension and also to relieve the chest pain that the patient experiences sometimes as a result of a heart problem. Diltiazem belongs to the class of antianginal, Antiarrhythmics. The recommended dosage for the patient is 240 mg once a day and the administration route is oral. Some of the adverse effects associated with this medication include breathing difficulties, swelling of the face, lips tongue or throat and hives. Major side effects include hypotension and heart block (Arrigo et al, 2014). Before administering Diltiazem, it is important to monitor the frequency of prescription refills to determine adherence to the medication and also assess to factors that contribute to the patient’s anginal pain (Arrigo et al, 2014).
This medication was prescribed for the patient to reduce the risk of heart failure after myocardial infarction. The recommended dose for the patient is 20 mg a day and the route of administration is oral. Lisinopril belongs to the class of antihypertensives (Tsai et al, 2017). Some of the side effects associated with this medication include dizziness, lightheadedness, tiredness, or headache. Prior to administration of this medication, it is important for the patient’s blood pressure, heart rate, weight and edema to be monitored (Tsai et al, 2017).
Buspirone was prescribed for the patient to manage anxiety for the patient. The prescribed dose for the patient is 10 mg twice a day and it is administered orally. The drug belongs to the class of anxiolytics (Rabatin & Keltz, 2012). Some of side effects associated with this medication include: dizziness, blurred vision, chest pain, and nausea.
This medication was prescribed for the patient to manage signs and symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease. The route of administration is oral and the dosage is 0.25 mg once per day. The medication is administered in the evening because it has sedation effects (Sonia et al, 2016). Ropinirole belongs to the class of antiparkinson agents. Some possible side effects for this medication include swelling of the face, lips tongue or throat, as well as breathing difficulties. Before administration of this medication it is important to assess the patient for drowsiness and sleep attacks (Sonia et al, 2016).Report on Interview and Patient’s Medications
This medication was prescribed to treat anxiety symptoms in the patient. The medication belongs to benzodiazepines class and works by acting on the brain and nerves to generate a calming effect. Lorazepam is administered orally and the dosage for the patient is 3 mg/day b.i.d. Some possible side effects with Lorazepam include confusion, hallucinations, agitation, drowsiness, fatigue, dizziness and sleep problems. The medication was administered bedtime because of its sedative effects (Griffin et al, 2013).
This medication was prescribed to improve urination for the patient because of his enlarged prostate. The medication works by relaxing prostate muscles and hence makes urination easier. The recommended dosage for the patient is 0.4 mg orally once per day. Tamsulosin belongs to the class of alpha blockers and its administration route is oral. Side effects associated with tamsulosin include dizziness, vomiting, diarrhea, and sweating (Tolou & Mazdak, 2017).
The goal of this teaching plan is to educate the patient regarding the medications he is taking on aspects such as the dosage, time, side effects as well as possible drug interactions. In addition, this teaching plan aims to educate the patient regarding the significance of medication adherence.
- Printed materials: This will include materials printed using various techno tools. The materials will contain educative information. The patient will be left with the printed materials after education so that he can use them as point of reference.
- Websites: interactive Web sites will be used to teach the patient and this will also include the patient being referred to the most accessible websites regarding his treatment regiment
Use technology: This is because technology ensures increased access to education materials. With technology it will be possible to customize educational resources and print them for the patient.
Involve family members: Involving family members will increase the likelihood of the patient following instructions. Evidence shows that the family plays a significant role in healthcare management.
Specific Instructions about Medications
Acetaminophen: The patient will be advised to avoid taking alcohol when taking this medication. Additionally, the patient will be educated about side effects likely to result from this medication such as dizziness, breathing difficulties, and chest pain (Roberts et al, 2015). However, the patient will be advised to visit his healthcare provider whenever he gets rash.Report on Interview and Patient’s Medications
Diltiazem: The patient will be advised to avoid taking multivitamin containing minerals because this can reduce efficacy of the medication. The patient will also be advised to avoid alcohol because this can lower his blood pressure and increase effects of diltiazem. In addition, the patient will be educated about the specific reasons for taking this medication as well as the expected side effects such as swelling and breathing difficulties (Arrigo et al, 2014).
Lisinopril: The patient will be advised to avoid consuming large amounts of foods high in potassium, such as bananas, oranges, green leafy vegetables, and salt or any food high in contain potassium. The patient will also be advised to avoid aspirin and other non-steroidal inflammatory (Tsai et al, 2017). Moreover, he will be advised to avoid OTC cough medications because they can increase his blood pressure, and the patient will also be educated on measures that can help in reducing blood pressure such as physical activities, low salt intake, no smoking. Finally, the patient will be advised to monitor his blood pressure regularly and be educated about the possible side effects (Tsai et al, 2017).
Buspirone: The patient will be advised to avoid drinking grapefruit juice while taking this medication because this can interfere with the drug interactions. Additionally, the patient will be advised to be careful not to confuse buspirone with bupropion because these names can be confusing (Rabatin & Keltz, 2012).
Ropinirole: The patient will be advised to avoid alcohol and caffeine while on this medication. Additionally, he will also be educated about the expected side effects (Sonia et al, 2016).
Tamsulosin: The patient will be informed that this medication can result to sudden fall of his blood pressure which can make him dizzy or even lead to fainting. During such episodes, the patient should avoid areas that he can fall. The patient will also be advised to ensure he takes the medication at the exact time every day (Tolou & Mazdak, 2017).
Ativan (Lorazepam): The patient will be advised to always take the medication during bedtime as it has sedative effects. He will also be educated about all the possible side effects (Griffin et al, 2013).
Factors likely to Negatively Impact Adherence
Factors likely to negatively impact adherence include polypharmacy because the patient is taking numerous medications and this can confuse the patient. This factor can be overcome by reducing the number of doses the patient takes (Shaikh et al, 2018).
The available family members will be involved during the entire patient education. This is because evidence shows family involvement increase adherence to treatment regimen.
According to the report, the patient is on seven types of medications that include acetaminophen, diltiazem, lisinopril, buspirone, ropinirole, tamsulosin, and ativan. The goal of the teaching plan is to educate the patient about the medications and increase adherence. Teaching resources will include printed materials and websites. Technology and family involvement are the preferred teaching strategies. The report has also presented specific instructions about medications and factors likely to impact the patient’s adherence to medication.
Arrigo M, Bettex D & Rudiger A. (2014). Management of Atrial Fibrillation in Critically Ill Patients. Critical Care Research and Practice. 1(8), pp: 1-10.Report on Interview and Patient’s Medications
Griffin C, Kaye A, Beuno F & Kaye A. (2013). Benzodiazepine Pharmacology and Central Nervous System–Mediated Effects. Ochsner J. 13(2): 214–223.
Rabatin J & Keltz L. (2012). Generalized anxiety and panic disorder. Western Journal of Medicine. 176(3): 164–168.
Roberts E, Nunes V, Sara B, Latchem S, Miller P, Zhang W et al (2015). Paracetamol: not as safe as we thought? A systematic literature review of observational studies. Clinical and epidemiological research. 2(1).
Shaikh F, Pasch L, Newton P & Ferguson C. (2018). Addressing Multimorbidity and Polypharmacy in Individuals with Atrial Fibrillation. Current Cardiology Reports. 20(5):32-38.
Sonia M, Tracey M & Brian H. (2016). A Case of Vivid Hallucinations Secondary to Ropinirole. American Journal of Therapeutics. 1(1).
Tsai T, Kroehl M, Smith S, Dai I & Katy T. (2017). Efficacy and safety of twice‐ vs once‐daily dosing of lisinopril for hypertension. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 19(9),pp: 868-873.
Tolou Z & Mazdak H. (2017). A Review on Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Tamsulosin in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Jundishapur J Chronic Dis Care. ;6(1):e38794.
Report on Interview and Patient’s Medications