The Change Process Essay Paper

The Change Process Essay Paper

Diabetes Mellitus Response

I agree with the post on diabetes mellitus. However, there are contradicting statements about the disease. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia that results from insulin deficiency. Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta islet cells in the pancreas to regulate glucose in the blood. Diabetes mellitus is subdivided into; diabetes type 1, diabetes type 2, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus type one hyperglycemia due to the body’s autoimmune reaction that destroys the cells that produce insulin leading to insufficient production of insulin. Often diabetes mellitus type one occurs at the early stages of life; less than 35years (Katsarou, et al, 2017). Its symptoms are frequent urination, fatigue, weight loss, and excessive thirst. Type two diabetes mellitus occurs during adulthood at the age of 40years and above. Diabetes mellitus type two occurs due to declining cell function pancreas. This causes defective insulin secretion and the inability of insulin-sensitive tissues to respond appropriately to insulin (Oguntibeju, O. O. 2019). Gestational diabetes mellitus is hyperglycemia during late pregnancy due to the body’s inability to produce sufficient insulin (McIntyre, et al, 2019). Juvenile diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition in which the pancreas fails to produce insulin hormone. It typically appears during puberty. The Change Process Essay Paper


The first-line treatment for diabetes mellitus type one is insulin injected subcutaneously. Insulin is administration varies with the onset and duration of action. For example, actrapid is soluble insulin that lowers blood glucose by binding to the receptors of the fat and muscle cells. Glinides are a class of oral hypoglycemics that stimulates the rapid secretion of insulin. It also enhances early prandial insulin response by increasing the sensitivity of the beta cells to elevated glucose levels leading to greater insulin production under hyperglycemic conditions. Nateglide is administered orally 30minutes before meals after every eight hours. Recommended dosage is 60mg to 120mg. Repaglinide is an oral hypoglycemic for patients with diabetes mellitus type two (Oguntibeju, O. O. 2019). Its dosage is 0.5mg to 2mg four times a day depending on the meals pattern. Usually, it is administered before meals. Adverse effects for glinides are hypoglycemia, headache, and upper respiratory tract infections. Symptoms of hypoglycemia are fatigue, tremor, profuse sweating, and loss of consciousness. Dietary considerations for patients with diabetes mellitus type one are reduced carbohydrates intake, moderate intake of wholemeal grains and proteins, and increased intake of vegetables. The patients should have restricted intake of sugary food and have regular glycemic checks up. The Change Process Essay Paper

Diabetes is a disease that develops when the pancreas cannot produce sufficient insulin, or the body becomes resistant to the insulin produced and hence cannot regulate the blood sugar levels effectively. Type 1 Diabetes results when an individual’s body produces little or no insulin, and thus the body cannot control the sugar levels (Kahanovitz et al., 2017). In contrast, Type 2 Diabetes is caused by the body’s resistance to insulin, and therefore the insulin produced cannot be used for blood sugar control (World Health Organization). Gestational Diabetes is a type of Diabetes that primarily affects pregnant women causing high levels of glucose in the blood and can cause complications to the mother and child (Coleman, 2017). On the other hand, juvenile Diabetes is similar to Type 1 Diabetes and is common for young adults between the ages of ten and sixteen. This type of Diabetes is attributed to the hormonal production changes during puberty which affect blood sugar levels (Duhig, 2018). This discussion will focus on Type 1 Diabetes, and the treatment methods developed to increase insulin production in the body. One class of oral hypoglycemic agents used to manage this type of Diabetes is the Glinides which include Nateglinide and Repaglinide. These drugs stimulate insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cells by binding to the ATP-sensitive potassium channels (Speed Pharmacology, 2017). They have a fast-acting hence a more rapid onset when taken. This makes them highly effective and valuable for hypoglycemic patients (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). These drugs are administered orally, and due to the fast action, the effects are felt by the patient after at least an hour, and the body is stimulated to produce insulin and regulate the blood sugar levels (American Diabetes Association, 2018). This drug action continues for 5 to 8 hours before the patient has to take another dose. (American Diabetes Association, 2018). For Repaglinide, the approved daily dosage is 16mg and should be taken 30minutes before a meal. A dose of 4mg should be taken up to 4 times a day, depending on the patient. The recommended daily dosage for Nateglinide is 360mg and taken half an hour before meals. A dose of 120mg should be taken three times per day (American Diabetes Association, 2018). Some of the short-term impacts of type 1 diabetes are excessive thirst, frequent urination, blurry vision, and fatigue. Long-term effects include an increased likelihood of developing high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases (Kahanovitz et al., 2017). Dietary consideration for type 1 Diabetes should consist of complex carbohydrates, whole grains, fruits, and proteins. A balanced diet is essential in maintaining the sugar level at optimal ranges while still providing all the necessary nutrients (Patton, 2011). The side effects of using Glinides for treatment are gaining weight and hypoglycemia (Speed Pharmacology, 2017). Symptoms of hypoglycemia include hunger, perspirations, nausea, and fatigue (American Diabetes Association, 2018). The Change Process Essay Paper

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. Chapter 48, “Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus” (pp. 397–415) Chapter 49, “Drugs for Thyroid Disorders” (pp. 416–424) American Diabetes Association. (2018). Pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care, 41(Supplement 1), S73–S85. Retrieved from The Change Process Essay Paper


Katsarou, A., Gudbjörnsdottir, S., Rawshani, A., Dabelea, D., Bonifacio, E., Anderson, B. J., … & Lernmark, Å. (2017). Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nature reviews Disease primers3(1), 1-17.

McIntyre, H. D., Catalano, P., Zhang, C., Desoye, G., Mathiesen, E. R., & Damm, P. (2019). Gestational diabetes mellitus. Nature reviews Disease primers5(1), 1-19.

Oguntibeju, O. O. (2019). Type 2 diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress, and inflammation: examining the links. International journal of physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology11(3), 45. The Change Process Essay Paper

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