The Use of clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies paper

The Use of clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies paper

The Use Of Clinical Systems To Improve Outcomes And Efficiencies

Introduction

A clinical system is a system that stores and restores patient’s data in a hospital set-up, both outpatient and inpatient. This helps to monitor the progress and projects the expected outcome. Reliable clinical systems have shown a great improvement in the patient’s outcome and effectiveness to the care providers. Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that has increased mortality and morbidity rate. It is characterized by persistently elevated blood glucose levels. It is managed through regular monitoring of the blood sugar levels and the complications associated with diabetes. For this to be successful, the patient and the primary care provider needs and efficient clinical system to keep track of the patient’s data. With the advanced technology in modern society, electronic health record is a clinical system that is being used in hospitals. It stores patient’s data and ensures patient safety in a hospital. In this paper, the author describes the use of clinical systems to improve outcomes and effectiveness in a newly diagnosed diabetic patient. Electronic healthcare records (EHR) have been selected as the clinical system The Use of clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies paper

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Summary One

Kruse, C. S., & Beane, A. (2018). Health information technology continues to show a positive effect on medical outcomes: a systematic review. Journal of medical Internet research20(2), e41.

 

This article describes the clinical systems and their effectiveness and improvement in patient outcomes. Kruse and Beane focus on electronic health records in the management of newly diagnosed diabetic patients. EHR improves the management of chronic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, screening, and prevention of the diseases which leads to better patient outcomes. This clinical system provides treatment goals to the clinician and the patient. EHR also provide notifications and reminders to the care provider about the new preventive strategies and treatment modalities.

A medical analysis is done through MEDLINE and PubMed databases on the electronic health record interventions and the effects on medical outcomes in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. During the research, 81% of the total participants met the inclusion criteria. The outcome was that a strong majority of the literature showed positive effects of electronic health records. All participants were screened for chronic illnesses and provided with lifestyle modification education. This improved the outcome of the newly diagnosed patients and reduced the number of new cases.

Summary Two

Kruse, C. S., Stein, A., Thomas, H., & Kaur, H. (2018). The use of electronic health records to support population health: a systematic review of the literature. Journal of medical systems42(11), 214.

According to Kruse and stein electronic healthcare records is a clinical system that has improved the quality and efficiency of healthcare and health disparities in population health. It has eliminated interoperability, functionality, and many medical errors hence improving patient outcomes. EHR provides secure access to patient’s information that results in a positive outcome concerning the quality of care. It is used in the management of chronic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus through the continuity of care between the providers and the patients.

A study was done through a systemic review of electronic health records, independent observations, and continuous reading of peer-reviewed articles. The study showed that EHR has improved the productivity and efficiency of the healthy population. It has increased healthcare access to the population which provides more data on screening and preventive measures. Therefore, the health outcome of the patients especially diabetics have been impacted positively. The benefits of EHR outweighed the barriers in a ratio of 3:2. A newly diagnosed diabetic patient would benefit from EHR through monitoring of the vitals and for possible complications. The Use of clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies paper

Summary Three

Lyles, C. R., Nelson, E. C., Frampton, S., Dykes, P. C., Cemballi, A. G., & Sarkar, U. (2020). Using electronic health record portals to improve patient engagement: research priorities and best practices. Annals of Internal Medicine172(11_Supplement), S123-S129.

This article describes the use of electronic health records to improve patient outcomes. According to Lyles et al, only 15% to 30% of the patients in the united states of America use EHR. The information in this article was obtained from PubMed publishers. It describes that EHR is mostly used in the outpatient setting in three categories; intervention to increase the use of patient portals, documentation of patient, and usability testing of portal interfaces. The intervention that used personal training had the highest number of users and an improved outcome was reported.

A study was conducted through a review of fully researched articles. The study method was randomized trials, quasi-experimental, and cross-sectional analysis. This study targeted the adults and children in outpatient or special care department. The majority of the patient who needed special care, for example, the diabetic patients experienced the usefulness and satisfaction of the patient portal. The barriers associated with EHR are electronic illiteracy, privacy, and security concerns from the patients. HER portal has improved accessibility of healthcare services despite the low electronic literacy among the population. To improve the adoption of this, patients and caregivers will need a multifaceted approach to encourage approach.

Summary Four

Artzi, N. S., Shilo, S., Hadar, E., Rossman, H., Barbash-Hazan, S., Ben-Haroush, A., … & Segal, E. (2020). Prediction of gestational diabetes based on nationwide electronic health records. Nature Medicine26(1), 71-76.

This article describes the prediction of gestational diabetes among pregnant ladies by the use of electronic health records. The author reports that gestational diabetes has posed a great risk of short term and long term complications for both the mother and the child. Earlier detection of new-onset of gestational diabetes prevents or reduces the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. EHR monitors the vitals during every visit including a random blood sugar test that predicts the risk of diabetes.

A research was conducted by the use of a machine learning approach to predict GDM on retrospective data of 588622 pregnancies for which EHR was available. Through emulation of the real-world performance, previously unreported risk factors were discovered. These risk factors were adopted in the EHR device whereby the patient was asked the questions. This helped inaccurate screening of all pregnant mothers. The outperforming baseline risk reduced increased from 0.68 to 0.8. EHR is a cost-effective clinical system due to its effective screening approach and early intervention.

Conclusion

Clinical systems such as EHR have been shown to improve patient outcomes, effectiveness, and efficiency in healthcare. The selected studies have shown its effectiveness and efficiency by reducing medical errors, regular screening, and provision of early interventions. Despite the barriers associated with the use of EHR, many patients have adopted the portal system because of the reduced costs and save time during access to healthcare services. The Use of clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies paper

The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

This type of assignment is considered an “Annotated Bibliography”. You should review the sample Annotated Bibliography from the writing center to help you complete this assignment. You do not need a reference page as you will cite each article before discussing it. In this assignment, you will review RESEARCH STUDIES focused on the application of one type of clinical system of your choosing. Listed below are examples of clinical systems:

  • Inpatient Electronic Health Records (EHR)
  • Outpatient EHRs
  • Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE)
  • Specialty Systems:
  • Ancillary Information Systems
    • Laboratory Information Systems
    • Pharmacy Information Systems
    • Radiology Information Systems
  • Electronic Medication Administration Record (eMAR)
  • Bar Code Medication Administration (BCMA) Systems,
  • Smart Pumps
  • Care Planning Systems
  • Messaging Systems
  • Alerts and Clinical Decision Support Systems
  • Telehealth Systems
  • Patient Portals
  • Patient Tracking Systems
  • Remote Monitoring Systems
  • Artificial Intelligence Systems
  • Patient Education Systems

 

After selecting one type of clinical system, you will conduct a search for recent (within the last 5 years) COMPLETED RESEARCH STUDIES that examined the improvement in outcomes and/or efficiencies. These studies need to report on the results of a research study and appear in a scholarly journal. The research studies should provide evidence that the use of the clinical system improved outcomes and/or efficiencies, such as “the use of personal health records or portals to support patients newly diagnosed with diabetes.”  For example, if you selected patient portals as the clinical system, you would use the following search terms: patient portals and outcomes. Searching on outcomes usually returns results on efficiencies as well.

You should not use studies reported at conferences, as they are not articles. For example, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, is a journal that include abstracts and conference proceedings, although it is a journal, it only includes studies presented at conferences, not original research articles published in scholarly journals. Articles that report on study protocols do not meet the requirements, as a protocol discusses how the study will be completed, there are no results. Studies that examine the factors that predict conditions like sepsis or falls also do not meet the requirement as they do not provide evidence that a clinical system improved outcomes or efficiencies. Literature reviews are also not research studies. Systematic reviews and metanalyses are studies, as they are broad in scope and include many research studies, they generally discuss mixed findings, some studies demonstrate improvements and some show no improvements. As you want to provide evidence of improvements, it is best to focus on single studies that demonstrate improvements in outcomes and efficiencies.

The Assignment: (4-5 pages)

In a 4- to 5-page paper, synthesize the peer-reviewed research studies you reviewed. Be sure to address the following:

  • Identify the 4 peer-reviewed research articles you reviewed, citing each in APA format. The articles should appear in alphabetical order in your paper. After the citation, you would discuss each article.
  • For each study, you will briefly summarize the study, explain the improvement to outcomes and/or efficiencies, and discuss lessons learned from the application of the clinical system each peer-reviewed article described. Be specific and provide examples. Each study should be discussed in approximately one page.

In summary, you need to select one type of clinical system and find 4 current research articles, published in scholarly journals, that examined outcomes and/or efficiencies related to the clinical system you chose. On the next page is the beginning of the shell of the paper. I purposely chose four articles on CPOE that were not current.

 

The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

Annotated Bibliography

Fortescue, E. B., Kaushal, R., Landrigan, C. P., McKenna, K. J., Clapp, M. D., Federico, F., Goldmann, D. A. & Bates, D. W. (2003). Prioritizing strategies for preventing medication errors and adverse drug events in pediatric inpatients. Pediatrics111(4), 722-729.

In the first paragraph you will summarize the study. Briefly describe the aim of the study, the sample and setting, and the methods.

In the second paragraph you will identify the outcomes and/or efficiencies examined in the study and explain the results related to improvements in the outcomes and/or efficiencies.

In the third paragraph, you will discuss lessons learned from the findings of the study and relate the lessons learned to the application of the clinical system.

Potts, A. L., Barr, F. E., Gregory, D. F., Wright, L., & Patel, N. R. (2004). Computerized physician order entry and medication errors in a pediatric critical care unit. Pediatrics113(1), 59-63.

In the first paragraph you will summarize the study. Briefly describe the aim of the study, the sample and setting, and the methods.

In the second paragraph you will identify the outcomes and/or efficiencies examined in the study and explain the results related to improvements in the outcomes and/or efficiencies.

In the third paragraph, you will discuss lessons learned from the findings of the study and relate the lessons learned to the application of the clinical system. The Use of clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies paper

Upperman, J. S., Staley, P., Friend, K., Neches, W., Kazimer, D., Benes, J., & Wiener, E. S. (2005). The impact of hospitalwide computerized physician order entry on medical errors in a pediatric hospital. Journal of Pediatric Surgery40(1), 57-59.

In the first paragraph you will summarize the study.  Briefly describe the aim of the study, the sample and setting, and the methods.

In the second paragraph you will identify the outcomes and/or efficiencies examined in the study and explain the results related to improvements in the outcomes and/or efficiencies.

In the third paragraph, you will discuss lessons learned from the findings of the study and relate the lessons learned to the application of the clinical system.

Walsh, K. E., Landrigan, C. P., Adams, W. G., Vinci, R. J., Chessare, J. B., Cooper, M. R., Hebert, P. M, Schainker, E. G., McLaughlin, T. J., & Bauchner, H. (2008). Effect of computer order entry on prevention of serious medication errors in hospitalized children. Pediatrics121(3), e421-e427.

In the first paragraph you will summarize the study.  Briefly describe the aim of the study, the sample and setting, and the methods.

In the second paragraph you will identify the outcomes and/or efficiencies examined in the study and explain the results related to improvements in the outcomes and/or efficiencies.

In the third paragraph, you will discuss lessons learned from the findings of the study and relate the lessons learned to the application of the clinical system.

Conclusion

The conclusion should synthesize the major results of all four research studies, examining and relating the findings of all studies to one another.  Do not introduce new ideas in this paragraph; the conclusion should interpret what you have written and what it means in the bigger picture.

Sample Annotated Bibliography

Autism research continues to grapple with activities that best serve the purpose of fostering positive interpersonal relationships for children who struggle with autism. Children have benefited from therapy sessions that provide ongoing activities to aid autistic children’s ability to engage in healthy social interactions. However, less is known about how K–12 schools might implement programs for this group of individuals to provide additional opportunities for growth, or even if and how school programs would be of assistance in the end. There is a gap, then, in understanding the possibilities of implementing such programs in schools to foster the social and thus mental health of children with autism. The Use of clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies paper

Annotated Bibliography

Kenny, M. C., Dinehart, L. H., & Winick, C. B. (2016). Child-centered play therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder. In A. A. Drewes & C. E. Schaefer (Eds.), Play therapy in middle childhood (pp. 103–147). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/14776-014

In this chapter, Kenny et al. provided a case study of the treatment of a 10-year-old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ADS). Kenny et al. described the rationale and theory behind the use of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) in the treatment of a child with ASD. Specifically, children with ADS often have sociobehavioral problems that can be improved when they have a safe therapy space for expressing themselves emotionally through play that assists in their interpersonal development. The authors outlined the progress made by the patient in addressing the social and communicative impairments associated with ASD. Additionally, the authors explained the role that parents have in implementing CCPT in the patient’s treatment. Their research on the success of CCPT used qualitative data collected by observing the patient in multiple therapy sessions.

CCPT follows research carried out by other theorists who have identified the role of play in supporting cognition and interpersonal relationships. This case study is relevant to the current conversation surrounding the emerging trend toward CCPT treatment in adolescents with ASD as it illustrates how CCPT can be successfully implemented in a therapeutic setting to improve the patient’s communication and socialization skills. However, Kenny et al. acknowledged that CCPT has limitations—children with ADS, who are not highly functioning and or are more severely emotionally underdeveloped, are likely not suited for this type of therapy.

Kenny et al.’s explanation of this treatments’s implementation is useful for professionals in the psychology field who work with adolescents with ASD. This piece is also useful to parents of adolescents with ASD, as it discusses the role that parents can play in successfully implementing the treatment. However, more information is needed to determine if this program would be suitable as part of a K–12 school program focused on the needs of children with ASD.

Stagnitti, K. (2016). Play therapy for school-age children with high-functioning autism. In A. A. Drewes and C. E. Schaefer (Eds.), Play therapy in middle cildhood (pp. 237–255). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/14776-013

Stagnitti discussed how the Learn to Play program fosters the social and personal development of children who have high functioning autism. The program is designed as a series of play sessions carried out over time, each session aiming to help children with high functioning autism learn to engage in complex play activities with their therapist and on their own. The program is beneficial for children who are 1- to 8-years old if they are already communicating with others both nonverbally and verbally. Through this program, the therapist works with autistic children by initiating play activities, helping children direct their attention to the activity, eventually helping them begin to initiate play on their own by moving past the play narrative created by the therapist and adding new, logical steps in the play scenario themselves. The underlying rationale for the program is that there is a link between the ability of children with autism to create imaginary play scenarios that are increasingly more complex and the development of emotional well-being and social skills in these children. Study results from the program have shown that the program is successful: Children have developed personal and social skills of several increment levels in a short time. While Stagnitti provided evidence that the Learn to Play program was successful, she also acknowledged that more research was needed to fully understand the long-term benefits of the program. The Use of clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies paper

Stagnitti offered an insightful overview of the program; however, her discussion was focused on children identified as having high-functioning autism, and, therefore, it is not clear if and how this program works for those not identified as high-functioning. Additionally, Stagnitti noted that the program is already initiated in some schools but did not provide discussion on whether there were differences or similarities in the success of this program in that setting.

Although Stagnitti’s overview of the Learn to Play program was helpful for understanding the possibility for this program to be a supplementary addition in the K–12 school system, more research is needed to understand exactly how the program might be implemented, the benefits of implementation, and the drawbacks. Without this additional information, it would be difficult for a researcher to use Stigmitti’s research as a basis for changes in other programs. However, it does provide useful context and ideas that researchers can use to develop additional research programs.

Wimpory, D. C., & Nash, S. (1999). Musical interaction therapy–Therapeutic play for children with autism. Child Language and Teaching Therapy, 15(1), 17–28.

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https://doi.org/10.1177/026565909901500103

Wimpory and Nash provided a case study for implementing music interaction therapy as part of play therapy aimed at cultivating communication skills in infants with ASD. The researchers based their argument on films taken of play-based therapy sessions that introduced music interaction therapy. To assess the success of music play, Wimpory and Nash filmed the follow-up play-based interaction between the parent and the child. The follow-up interactions revealed that 20 months after the introduction of music play, the patient developed prolonged playful interaction with both the psychologist and the parent. The follow-up films also revealed that children initiated spontaneously pretend play during these later sessions. After the introduction of music, the patient began to develop appropriate language skills. The Use of clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies paper

Since the publication date for this case study is 1999, the results are dated. Although this technique is useful, emerging research in the field has undoubtedly changed in the time since the article was published. Wimpory and Nash wrote this article for a specific audience, including psychologists and researchers working with infants diagnosed with ASD. This focus also means that other researchers beyond these fields may not find the researcher’s findings applicable.

This research is useful to those looking for background information on the implementation of music into play-based therapy in infants with ASD. Wimpory and Nash presented a basis for this technique and outlined its initial development. Thus, this case study can be useful in further trials when paired with more recent research.

Review the Resources and reflect on the impact of clinical systems on outcomes and efficiencies within the context of nursing practice and healthcare delivery. Conduct a search for recent (within the last 5 years) research focused on the application of clinical systems. The research should provide evidence to support the use of one type of clinical system to improve outcomes and/or efficiencies, such as “the use of personal health records or portals to support patients newly diagnosed with diabetes.” Identify and select 4 peer-reviewed research articles from your research. For information about annotated bibliographies, visit The Use of clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies paper https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/assignments/annotatedbibliographies The Assignment: (4-5 pages not including the title and reference page) In a 4- to 5-page paper, synthesize the peer-reviewed research you reviewed. Format your Assignment as an Annotated Bibliography. Be sure to address the following: Identify the 4 peer-reviewed research articles you reviewed, citing each in APA format. Include an introduction explaining the purpose of the paper. Summarize each study, explaining the improvement to outcomes, efficiencies, and lessons learned from the application of the clinical system each peer-reviewed article described. Be specific and provide examples. In your conclusion, synthesize the findings from the 4 peer-reviewed research articles. Use APA format and include a title page. Use the Safe Assign Drafts to check your match percentage before submitting your work.

References

You are not required to cite any other sources, so you do not need a reference page. If you cited sources in addition to the four studies, you would include only the additional sources on the reference page.  The Use of clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies paper

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