There are three types and two modalities of oppression. Discuss them

There are three types and two modalities of oppression. Discuss them

The below assignment has been written by another student. Please read it very carefully and reply to it by providing at least 200 meaningful words, APA format, at least one in-text cite and from at least one academic resource. Textbook—Hays, D. G., & Erford, B. T. (2014). Developing multicultural counseling competence: A systems approach (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. ISBN: 9780132851022. Thanks (Crishone) There are three types and two modalities of oppression. The types include: primary, secondary and tertiary oppression while the modalities include: oppression by force and by deprivation. Oppression can be viewed as harsh, unjust or cruel exercise of power over other people while oppression by force denotes oppression under duress or through coercion another or others (Hays and Erford, 2014, p.60). It involves imposing on others an object, label, rule, experience or set of living conditions that is unwanted, needlessly painful and affects one’s physical and psychological well-being, for example, rape and physical abuse of women (Hays and Erford, 2014, p.60). Oppression by deprivation involves depriving others of an object, role, experience or living conditions that are necessary in promoting physical and psychological well-being, for example, depriving children of food (Hays and Erford, 2014, p.60). Primary oppression can be perpetrated directly through either one or both modalities of oppression. Secondary oppression occurs when a person does not actively oppress through the modalities but benefits from the oppression. Tertiary oppression occurs when a member seeks acceptance from the dominant group by abandoning his or her own group (Hays and Erford, 2014, p.60).

Power is the control over or an influence of force, for example, the power to hire or fire people in a company. An imbalance of power resulting from misuse of power leads to oppression. Privilege is defined as having power, access, advantage and majority, for example, being able to choose where you want to leave (Hays and Erford, 2014, p.60). In relation to power and privilege, there are two groups of people, the dominant group and the target group. The dominant group is the majority and it has power and privilege over the target group. A member of a dominant group gains benefits simply because of his or her affiliation with the dominant group while a member of the target group is oppressed simply because of his or her differences as well as the difference of the group. The oppressed individual or group is devalued, stigmatized, discriminated and deprived of privileges by the group or person that has more power, for example, there is no evidence that colored students misbehave more than white students but they are punished more for less serious crimes. However, oppressed people also want power as well as privilege just as it is experienced and used by oppressors as a way of obtaining revenge against the oppressors.

There are common elements pertaining to all oppressions. First, dominant groups’ interests are to maintain and enhance their access to resources. This is because the dominant group makes up the majority and the minority group has no voice and therefore no power to access, control and manage resources. This is oppression by deprivation. Second, there is economic exploitation of the minority. This means that the dominant group tends to find ways to benefit from the minority leading to continued poverty among the minority, for example, dominant groups taking possession of land that belongs to minority groups. This is oppression by force and the primary oppressors are the land grabbers. Third, control of media messages by dominant groups and thus they are privileged to have the media at their disposal. This denies the minority the opportunity to critique, give ideas and opinions. This means that the majority have power to continue oppressing the minority because they cannot speak out on their oppression. This is a form of oppression by deprivation. Fourth, the spread of ideologies that minority groups are responsible for their victimization. This involves secondary whereby there are those who support these ideologies because they benefit from the oppression. Also, it involves tertiary oppression where members begin internalizing these beliefs and ideologies leading them to oppress themselves as well as reducing their self-esteem and feeling depressed.

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