Treatment of Acute Agitation Example

Treatment of Acute Agitation Example

Treatment Of Acute Agitation

Agitation is excessive verbal or motor behavior. It is a common psychiatric symptom that presents at the emergency department. It is often associated with an underlying psychiatric condition. Agitation steadily escalates to aggression verbally and physically. The process of treating this symptom is known as tranquilization. In this paper, the author describes treatment modalities of acute agitation. They are pharmacological and non-pharmacological. According to Zucchella, et al, (2018), the non-pharmacological treatment methods are the environmental approach and behavioral approach. Treatment of Acute Agitation Example

Non-Pharmacological Treatment Modalities

The environmental approach entails maintaining safety by removal of weapons used. The care providers should also ensure minimum stimulation of the patient. The behavioral method entails allowing the patient to ventilate their needs or preferences and create rapport with them (Gottlieb, et al, 2018). Treatment of Acute Agitation Example


Pharmacological Methods Of Treatment

The choice of medicine used in a patient in acute agitation depends on the cause of ailment and drug availability. The precipitating factors are somatization, alcohol withdrawal, or functional psychosis. In situations where the patient is an immediate danger to self and other people, the patient is put under sedation to avoid harm (Kim, et al, 2021). Drugs used in sedation are typical antipsychotics such as chlorpromazine or benzodiazepines such as lorazepam. The administration mode of these drugs is through intramuscular injection because they cause a rapid achievement of high plasma concentration that correlates with efficacy and efficiency soon after administration (Schneider, et al, 2020). Lorazepam is the most reliable benzodiazepine in the management of acute agitation. Lorazepam oral dosage is 0.5mg to 2mg every six hours (Mullinax, et al, 2017). Other modes of administration are sublingually and intramuscularly. Other drugs used are olanzapine, ziprasidone, and haloperidol. Treatment of Acute Agitation Example



Gottlieb, M., Long, B., & Koyfman, A. (2018). Approach to the agitated emergency department patient. The Journal of emergency medicine54(4), 447-457.

Kim, H. K., Leonard, J. B., Corwell, B. N., & Connors, N. J. (2021). Safety and efficacy of pharmacologic agents used for rapid tranquilization of emergency department patients with acute agitation or excited delirium. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety.

Mullinax, S., Shokraneh, F., Wilson, M. P., & Adams, C. E. (2017). Oral medication for agitation of psychiatric origin: a scoping review of randomized controlled trials. The Journal of emergency medicine53(4), 524-529.

Schneider, A., Mullinax, S., Hall, N., Acheson, A., Oliveto, A. H., & Wilson, M. P. (2020). Intramuscular medication for treatment of agitation in the emergency department: A systematic review of controlled trials. The American journal of emergency medicine.

Zucchella, C., Sinforiani, E., Tamburin, S., Federico, A., Mantovani, E., Bernini, S., … & Bartolo, M. (2018). The multidisciplinary approach to Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. A narrative review of non-pharmacological treatment. Frontiers in neurology9, 1058. Treatment of Acute Agitation Example

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