WK 10 Assignment: Breast cancer
WK 10 Assignment: Breast cancer
Breast cancer is among the most prevalent cancers worldwide. The disease affects both the men and women even though it is mostly common in women. Breast cancer is associated with the development of malignant tumors which grow and multiply uncontrollably in the breasts and end up spreading in the surrounding tissues. According to a global research, 23% of deaths among women are caused by breast cancer. In 2014, new invasive breast cancer cases were estimated to be about 2,360 in men with new non-invasive breast cancer diagnostic cases in women were expected to reach 62,570 (Torre et al., 2015). Following the increased prevalence and fatal effects of cancers in the contemporary society, this paper seeks to explore the preventive services for breast cancer in women, the risk factors as well as the drug treatment options and their long-term and short-term implications.WK 10 Assignment: Breast cancer
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Prevention of breast cancer in women is supported by creation of awareness and health promotion by the U.S Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF). Healthcare practitioners are responsible for providing relevant information on breast cancer to women and the detection options. This includes screening routines which help in early detection and management of cancerous cells done through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), mammograms and clinical breast examinations. Talking to doctors about breast cancer can also help in understanding the benefits and risks associated with breast cancer screening. This also promotes informed decision making concerning the right approaches to use in screening and preventing the disease.WK 10 Assignment: Breast cancer
Self-breast examinations are also important in detecting abnormalities in the breasts. As such, it is essential for an individual to become familiar with their breast’s natural internal and external appearance. This helps identify lumps and changes that could be occurring and hence facilitate early detection of potential health problems for timely treatment. The awareness of the breasts does not prevent cancer directly. However it supports better understanding of the anatomy and normal changes of the breasts. Therefore, an individual is able to seek medical attention in the event of abnormal changes that could suggest the development of cancerous cells.
Interestingly, breast feeding is also an effective preventive measure for breast cancer. Women should breastfeed their children for one year or more to decrease the breast cancer risks. Moreover, after the age of 35 years, women should avoid the use of birth control pills and hormone therapies which have demonstrated increased risks of development of breast and other reproductive cancers. Postmenopausal hormone therapy also contributes to the development of breast cancer and particularly when used for long-term purposes. As such, limiting hormonal interferences is significant in preventing the occurrence of the illness.
Factors Affecting Decisions on Preventive Services
Genetics increases the likelihood of getting breast cancers. Gene mutations play significant roles in the development of breast cancer cells. Women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations demonstrate an increased risk of cancer development (Kuchenbaecker et al., 2017). The inheritance of these genes also heightens the potential of breast cancer occurrence in the future generations. For instance, having a family member with breast cancer can influence the occurrence of cancer cases in the future. In addition, the history of breast conditions can signal the development of cancerous cells particularly with breast biopsies and surgical procedures which could initiate mutation of genes. Since the genetic make-up of an individual is not easily altered, prevention of breast cancer in these patients is rendered difficult to achieve.WK 10 Assignment: Breast cancer
The minority ethnic groups have higher chances of developing breast cancer and other health conditions. This is influenced by the health disparities which limit the accessibility of healthcare breast cancer awareness, screening and treatment services. Their financial status also discourages the access of care. In the US, 20% of Latinas succumb to breast cancer complications in comparison to the Hispanic white women (Iqba et al., 2015). The Latino population is often diagnosed for breast cancer at later stages which limits prevention.
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Drug treatment of Breast Cancer
Breast cancer treatment depends on the current stage of cancer. Chemotherapy focuses on killing and reducing the chances of development of cancer cells using medications. For instance, Selective Estrogen-Receptor Modulators (SERMs) such as Tamoxifen, farestone and Evista bind the estrogen receptors that starve the cancer cells in the breasts resulting in their death (Mirkin & Pickar, 2015). The prevention of estrogen production in adrenal glands is also achieved by Aromatase Inhibitors including megace, arimidex, femara and aromasin drugs (Anampa, Makower & Sparano, 2015). The growth of the breast cancer cells is also limited by Herceptin, a biological response modifier, which bind certain proteins. Long-term effects of cancer drugs include sexual dysfunction, absence and cessation of menstruation, cardiac complications, fatigue, headaches, and onset of new cancers, pain and numbness. Short term implications are emotional distress and discomfort, mood swings and cessation of menstrual periods. WK 10 Assignment: Breast cancer
Breast cancer is prevalent in the society and causes adverse impacts n the patients. The risk factors include genetics and ethnicity and can be prevented through early screening, lifestyle changes and self-examinations. Chemotherapy facilitates treatment even though it presents fatal short-term and long-term implications.
Anampa, J., Makower, D., & Sparano, J. A. (2015). Progress in adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: an overview. BMC medicine, 13(1), 195.
Iqbal, J., Ginsburg, O., Rochon, P. A., Sun, P., & Narod, S. A. (2015). Differences in breast cancer stage at diagnosis and cancer-specific survival by race and ethnicity in the United States. Jama, 313(2), 165-173.
Kuchenbaecker, K. B., Hopper, J. L., Barnes, D. R., Phillips, K. A., Mooij, T. M., Roos-Blom, M. J., … & Goldgar, D. E. (2017). Risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Jama, 317(23), 2402-2416.
Mirkin, S., & Pickar, J. H. (2015). Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs): a review of clinical data. Maturitas, 80(1), 52-57.
Torre, L. A., Bray, F., Siegel, R. L., Ferlay, J., Lortet‐Tieulent, J., & Jemal, A. (2015). Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 65(2), 87-108. WK 10 Assignment: Breast cancer