World Health Organization (WHO) Sample

World Health Organization (WHO) Sample

Part 1: An Overview of Major Global Health Organizations

World Health Organization (WHO)

World Health Organization is a specialized non-profit United Nations Agency concerned with the global public health. It was founded on 7 April 1948 with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. It operates in 150 countries with more than 7000 workers (World Health Organization, 2017). World Health Organization (WHO) Sample


To increase effectiveness and improve health through the publishment and spread of scientific information on public health to the international clinical setting and particularly the minorities.

Major Initiatives

  • Urbanization:
    • Entails social determinants of health and urbanization
    • promotes sustainability in transport patterns and betters amalgration of environmental and health concerns into transport policies
  • Human development
    • Focuses on the health of children in the environmental
    • Ageing and Life Course: provides opportunities for age-friendly improvements in multiple sectors.
    • Healthy Environments for Children Alliance (HECA)


  • Food and nutrition
    • Food safety: Maintains food security and reliability of supplies
    • Nutrition: Contribute to community programs and policies focused on nutrition
  • Interpersonal relationships :
    • Violence Prevention Alliance (VPA): WHO addresses victimization and violence factors and supports implementation of VPA public health interventions.
    • HIV/AIDS: WHO integrates HIV/AIDS services into the public health system.
  • Prevention
    • Move for Health: Initiates health promotion at the country level.
    • Tobacco Free Initiative (TFI): Provides universal tobacco control measures.
    • Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion (CHP): promotes health, prevention and control of major risk factors of chronic diseases.
    • Health Promotion: Addresses disease, risk factors and population groups.

Alignment with the basic principles of the World Health Organization Constitution

  • WHO perceives health as a state of complete physical, mental and social wellness and not the absence of infirmity or illness.
  • It recognizes the fundamental rights of beings and their health needs without discrimination.
  • It advocates for active cooperation and informed opinion on the public health.
  • It supports children health development and their ability to coexist harmoniously in the environment.
  • Extend the benefits of medical, psychological and related knowledge for optimization of healthcare.
  • Conducts health promotion and disease control in different countries World Health Organization (WHO) Sample
  • Values the attainment of health promotion and protection in any state.
  • Upholds maintenance of security and peace through state and individual cooperation
  • Recognizes the responsibility of government in public health through provision of social and sufficient health measures.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)


To protect America from health, safety and security threats, both foreign and in the U.S (Berríos-Torres et al., 2017).


  • Active people, healthy nation.
  • Health disparities
  • Environmental health
  • Emergency preparedness and response
  • Chronic diseases
  • Vaccination/ immunization
  • Health quality
  • Health IT
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Injury and violence prevention
  • Public health policies

Alignment to the constitution

  • It recognizes the fundamental rights of beings and their health needs without discrimination and prevents disparities.
  • Ensures health security
  • Promotion of public health
  • Recognizes the government and federal obligations to public health

United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)


To meet the full potential through expansion of opportunities and provision of basic needs to advocate for the protection of the rights of children (World Health Organization, 2017).


  • Augmented virtual/reality for good: seeks to reach the most disconnected through new technologies.
  • Exploration of block chain applications for children
  • Digital heath initiatives: Designing and deployment of enabled solutions to strengthen healthcare system.
  • Artificial intelligence and data science
  • Application of UAV and drone technology.

Alignment to WHO Constitutional Principles

  • It supports children health development, protection and their ability to coexist harmoniously in the environment.
  • Mobilizes material resources and political will to help support children’s health in different countries.

Part 2: An Overview of Health Care Models

The entrepreneurial model of healthcare focuses on productivity, efficiency, containment of costs rather than the equal healthcare treatment and access. It is characterized by limited intervention of states in to the market, competitive markets and decentralization. It entails clinical care, academics, innovations and philanthropy. The structure of this model promotes communication and frequent interaction sales, production and marketing. The flat structure of entrepreneurship entails collaborative efforts and reporting to manager and is applicable in small healthcare organizations. The manager engages in, multi-tasking to be able to maximize the scarce hospital resources.  The hierarchical structure is applicable in large facilities whereby, company departments with leaders and subordinates. Each department operate independently and subordinates report to their heads of departments. It also has a planning and communication structure responsible for organization of activities and resources as well as relaying of information within the organization. World Health Organization (WHO) Sample

Mandated health insurance model requires individuals to purchase their insurance and also offers subsidized health insurance to low-income individuals. The elements of this model include the coverage that qualifies for a particular individual, the amount of penalties for not lack of maintenance and the available exemptions.


Structure of mandatory health insurance Model II

Branches of Territorial MHI funds assume the role of insurers. There is no competitive insurance market. The following structure is implemented as direct model.

A mandated insurance model

National Health Service presents the world’s largest single-payer healthcare system world. It is an England’s healthcare system funded by the national system with headquarters at the Richmond House in London (Jung & Tran, 2016). The single-payer in this model has a considerable bargaining power for lower prices in the market. Private sector providers are used to pay after payment of government insurance program policies by citizens. It is composed of the citizens, government-run insurance program and private-sector providers. The structure follows the payment of funds to the government after which the private sector providers are payed by the government.

Elements of the healthcare system that make it effective for disease treatment include sufficient medical resources such as medicines, equipment and human resources. Moreover, adequate financial resources are significant in purchasing of supplies, payment of bills as well as compensation for the healthcare providers. High value services also ensure quality management of diseases. Moreover, cultural recovery, resilience and sensitivity facilitate treatment of diseases across all populations. Notably, the healthcare performance is measured by mortality, safety of care, patient experience, data transparency, efficiency of utilization of medical imaging, care effectiveness, readmissions, treatment costs, and average hospital stay.

The entrepreneurial, mandated health insurance and National Health Service are relevant models of healthcare in cost management. The entrepreneurial model is profit-oriented and thus seeks to increase the healthcare’s outcome at the expense of accessibility, prevention and quality. On the contrary, mandate health insurance allows individuals to cater for their medical expenses and acquire their preferred insurances probably with the most affordable costs. However, National Health Service provides patients with a bargaining power in the market which facilitates lowering of prices. This is due to the monopolization of healthcare by the government which prevents exploitation and competition for healthcare costs. As such, National Health Service presents the most cost-effective model of the three. World Health Organization (WHO) Sample

Part 3: An Explanation of Key Performance Indicators

Key performance indicators are used to measure performance and management in diverse ways. For instance, safety of care is used to track the medical errors occurring in the healthcare system. Hospital-acquired infections and skin breakdown indicate safety concerns and hence, their measurement helps in devising evidence-based interventions in the treatment process to improve the outcomes (Sinelnikov, Inouye & Kerper, 2015). In addition, readmissions following hospitalization is costly and indicates inadequate treatment. Identifying these cases helps decrease the cost of prevention of hospital readmissions through advanced analysis of the process and reasons for the outcomes. Efforts to reduce readmissions after hospitalization also help improve accuracy of diagnosis and treatment.

Patient experience is significant in measuring the performance of healthcare organizations. It entails their perception and experiences in the hospital and thus gives testimonies and recommendations essential from improvement of care and patient outcomes. Being an instant feedback, it provides real-time change of the healthcare process thus preventing risks and safety issues that challenge the quick recovery of patients.


Berríos-Torres, S. I., Umscheid, C. A., Bratzler, D. W., Leas, B., Stone, E. C., Kelz, R. R., … & Dellinger, E. P. (2017). Centers for disease control and prevention guideline for the prevention of surgical site infection, 2017. JAMA surgery152(8), 784-791.

Jung, J., & Tran, C. (2016). Market inefficiency, insurance mandate and welfare: US health care reform 2010. Review of Economic Dynamics20, 132-159.

Sinelnikov, S., Inouye, J., & Kerper, S. (2015). Using leading indicators to measure occupational health and safety performance. Safety science72, 240-248.

World Health Organization. (2017). Monitoring human rights in contraceptive services and programmes: World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research, including the UNDP-UNFPA-UNICEF-WHO-World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP).


World Health Organization (WHO) Sample

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